Browsing Honors College by Issue Date "2013-11-04"
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- ItemA Test of the Effects of Covert Marketing: Should Marketers Proceed With Caution?(2013-11-04) Gordon, Sarah B.; Blose, Julia E.
- ItemAn Analysis of the Biological and Physical Relationships in the Coral Reefs of Menjangan Island: Effect of Decling Coral Cover on Ecological Complexity(2013-11-04) Lehman, Amber Pearl; Dustan, PhillipReef rugosity, the standard index of coral reef physical complexity, has classically been determined as the ratio between a taught rope and a chain draped onto the substrate of a reef. A new method of measuring reef rugosity, termed Digital Reef Rugosity has recently been pioneered by Phillip Dustan. It is believed, as is true with other biological communities, that increased habitat complexity in a coral population will lead to an increased fish species diversity. The Biosphere Foundation carried out a four month expedition to Bali, Indonesia to access the vitality of Menjangan Island's coral reefs. We found that Balinese coral reefs with greater structural complexity (rugosity) contain more fish most probably due to increased niche diversity. Additionally, reefs with more diverse coral communities also tend to have greater fish species diversity. Thus both physical and biological complexity are significant components of coral reef ecological integrity. However, the correlation between coral and fish biodiversity degrades as a function of decreasing coral cover. Weakening coral and fish diversity relationships with decreasing coral cover may indicate a “tipping point” where the coral reef communitiy begins to collapse.
- ItemARTIST’S PERSPECTIVES ON ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITY AND SUCCESS(2013-11-04) Harbeck, Allison Kate; Hansen, David
- ItemBehavioral Changes and Morphological Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex during Neuropathic Pain(2013-11-04) Hughes, Hannah Alicia; Meyer-Bernstein, Elizabeth; Riegel, Arthur C.$Chronic pain is a serious public health problem that is often intractable to known therapies. While cellular adaptations that occur in the periphery and spinal cord are fairly well-understood, less is known about adaptations that occur in the brain that alter how pain is perceived. Neuropathic pain is associated with the development of an affective state, and that state shapes ongoing cognitive and emotional processes. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the onset of sensory pain and the development of the affective component. To evaluate these factors, we used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model for neuropathic pain in rats. Following SNI, we measured the pain threshold (allodynia) elicited by Von Frey filaments and evaluated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, 22KHz). We showed that there is an immediate and constant reduction in the pain threshold following SNI; however, USVs develop over time. This indicates that the affective component of pain develops after a prolonged period of sensory pain. Pain-related affect is mediated by the prefrontal cortex. The second goal of this study was to evaluate cellular adaptions that occur in the PFC that may contribute to the development of the affective component of pain. Immunocytochemical studies by collaborators show that there is increased expression of c-Fos in the contralateral prelimbic (PrL) region of rat prefrontal cortex following SNI, and that expression is colocalized to the expression of CaMKII. These results suggest that glutamatergic pyramidal cells are affected by SNI, and electrophysiological studies in these cells show that they are hyperexcitable. This study evaluated the dendritic spine population in PrL pyramidal cells following SNI. As a control experiment, we evaluated dendritic spines on pyramidal cells in the visual cortex. We showed an increase in the population of filopodia spines at day 30 and long thin spines at days 7 and 30 post-SNI. There was no change in the spine population in the visual cortex. Long thin spines have been referred to as “learning” spines because they are preferential sites for LTP, and this pain-induced increase in spine density may reflect a mechanism for “learning” of pain-related affect.
- ItemChoice among Equally Priced Food Alternatives in Rats(2013-11-04) Gonto (Burnette), Kelsey Leigh; Galuska, ChadStudies investigating unit price predictions of choice in humans and monkeys have indicated that – at relatively cheap prices – most subjects prefer a large reward for more work than a small reward for less work; however, the opposite pattern has been reported in pigeons. Our study further explored this issue by examining rats’ demand and choice between alternatives equal in price but comprised of different response requirements and reinforcer magnitudes. Five food-restricted adult male Long Evans rats lever pressed for food pellets. Demand curves were first obtained by manipulating the fixed-ratio (FR) response requirement across sessions using 1-pellet and 4-pellet reinforcers. In the choice phase of the study, two levers were available simultaneously. In most conditions, the alternatives were equally priced but comprised of FR and reinforcer sizes of differing magnitudes. Two patterns of results were exhibited: rats either displayed a clear preference for one of the alternatives or they showed a lever bias. The rats with lever biases demonstrated a clear preference for the cheaper alternative during conditions in which the alternatives were unequally priced. Rats demonstrating preference under equally priced choice comparisons tended to prefer the larger magnitude alternative over the smaller one until the overall price became expensive. These results provide mixed support for unit-price predictions of choice, which state that, when two alternatives of equal unit price are available, there should be no discernable preference between them. This study demonstrates that some rats do, in fact, exhibit a preference between equally priced alternatives comprised of different response requirements and reinforcer amounts.
- ItemCircadian Rhythms of Temperature Entrainment in <i>Nematostella vectensis</i>(2013-11-04) James, Melissa Rebecca; Meyer-Bernstein, Elizabeth LWe have been investigating the circadian system of the sea anemone, <i>Nematostella vectensis</i> to determine if temperature can act as a temporal cue to the circadian clock. The animals’ locomotor activity was initially synchronized to a 24hr photoperiod, and subsequently exposed to a temperature cycle (22:32 degrees C). We have found that temperature can be effective in synchronizing the circadian clock in <i>N. vectensis</i> and that the animals are more active in the cooler temperatures. In addition to the behavioral analysis, we have recently identified a temperature sensitive protein, hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin, which regulates peroxidase levels and oscillates with temperature in erythrocytes. Our preliminary results suggest that this protein expression could oscillate in expression with temperature cycles in <i>N. vectensis</i>. We plan to identify components of the temperature entrainment pathway that provide input to the molecular clock. This will offer insight into the circadian system of Cnidarians and circadian clock evolution.
- ItemCommunity Displacement in Peru(2013-11-04) Huey, Zachary S; Huber, BradThe bachelor's essay provides an overview of current mining practices in Peru. It provides an in depth look at the stakeholders and how mining, as of now, has resulted in environmental damage and civil unrest in the region. The conclusion is change is possible by ensuring the communities affected by the mining sites gain a greater share of the profits, and a more prominent position in deciding future mineral development.
- ItemCuban Art & the Development of a National Identity(2013-11-04) Blayney, Nancy; Friedman, Douglas
- ItemCyber-physical Architecture, Cloud Computing and Mobility: The Vertical Design of a Sensor-Based, Microcontroller System Incorporating Predictive Analytics(2013-11-04) Binnicker, William Woodrow; Starr, Chris
- ItemDrivers of Change in Military Integration Policy(2013-11-04) Legette, Chelsea; Ford , LynneThis paper examines what drives change in the personnel policy of the United States military, especially with regard to integrating minority groups into the armed forces. This paper will first lay out the existing research regarding institutional change, as well as the existing research regarding race, sexual orientation, and gender in the military. I will then discuss three different case studies of integration in the military: race, sexual orientation, and gender. I will examine four specific drivers of change in military personnel policy: public opinion, civilian activists, institutional support, and performance in combat. This paper seeks to answer the question of which of those four drivers was most influential in each case, and why that was the most influential driver of change.
- ItemEvaluating Cortical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Adjunct to Motor Skills Rehabilitation Training in a Rodent Model of Traumatic Brain Injury(2013-11-04) McCarthy, Jordan J.; Milliken, GarrettVarious studies in animal models of stroke have found that motor impairments caused by stroke can be greatly reduced if the injured area of the motor cortex is electrically stimulated while the animal performs motor skills rehabilitation tasks. This rehabilitation and stimulation combination therapy is very effective, as animals receiving combination therapy are significantly less impaired than animals receiving only rehabilitation after stroke. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of combining cortical stimulation to the affected motor cortex with motor skills rehabilitation training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to determine if cortical stimulation holds the same benefits for TBI as it does for stroke in reducing motor impairments after injury. In this study, rats were initially trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a skilled single-pellet reaching task. Rats then received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) to the area of the motor cortex corresponding to their preferred reaching limb, and electrodes were implanted over the perilesional tissues near the injury site. Nine days after surgery, rats began a seven-week rehabilitation training program in one of four conditions: 100 Hz anodal stimulation during training, 100 Hz cathodal stimulation during training, 100 Hz bipolar stimulation during training, or no stimulation during training. The behavioral effects of rehabilitation and stimulation were assessed throughout the study with weekly single-pellet reaching test probes that evaluated qualitative aspects of 12 distinct motor movements in the reaching task. Overall, no significant differences in reaching performance were found between any of the four groups. These results suggest that 100 Hz anodal, cathodal, and bipolar stimulation are not effective adjuncts to motor skills rehabilitation training in the rodent CCI model of TBI. However, future studies should test different combinations of frequency, intensity, and polarity parameters, because it is possible that a different combination of stimulation parameters could be an effective therapeutic adjunct to motor skills rehabilitation training after TBI.
- ItemHigh Throughput Whole Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing of Sharks and Rays(2013-11-04) Judd, Mollianna Rose; Naylor, Gavin JP
- ItemInfluence of the Depiction of Video Game Female Warrior Figures and the Effect On Video Game Play and Enjoyment as well as Attitudes Toward Women(2013-11-04) Hogston, Robert Clayton; Wright, JenniferVideo games are incredibly widespread. According to some statistics, 41% of homes now possess a video game console of some type. With such a large audience playing video games and consuming the images and ideals associated with them, some effect would have to be seen on the population that play these games the most. This population is mainly made up of children, teenagers, and young adults. These individuals are consuming on a near daily basis images of violence, sexuality, and aggression that are not always accurate to reality. In particular, female characters are most like to exhibit a mix of sexuality and aggression in these video games. More often than not, women are portrayed as idealized sexual beings while also being aggressors or as the object of aggression. This juxtaposition leads to the conclusion that video games could have a negative effect on the beliefs and attitudes surrounding violence against women as well as both hostile and benevolent sexism.
- ItemMutated Frataxin in Determining the Mechanisms of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly(2013-11-04) Hsu, Li-yang; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela JFriedreich’s Ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease that results in dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, loss of lower limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration senses6. The cause of this disease is generally associated with reduced levels of the protein frataxin. The deficiency in the mitochondrial iron-binding protein frataxin results in diminished activity of various mitochondrial iron-sulfur proteins and influence energy production in cells5. It is known that frataxin is involved in Fe-S cluster assembly and that it interacts with other scaffold or partner proteins such as Isu1 and IsdI. To further understand the mechanism of frataxin and its role in iron homeostasis, we identified conserved amino acids of the protein that are thought to participate in binding iron and set out to mutate these residues to evaluate changes to frataxin activity. We report here our attempts to generate the frataxin mutant D102H.
- ItemOverindulgence- An Exploration of Decadence and Gluttony(2013-11-04) Hansen, Kathleen Elizabeth; Johnson, Steve
- ItemPlacement of the Mentally Ill in America's State Prison Systems: A Comparative Case Study of New York and South Carolina's State Prisons(2013-11-04) Kavalerchik, Miriam; Wofford, Claire; Hoffmann, Heath$
- ItemPretend Play as a Medium for Moral Development in Young Children(2013-11-04) James, Sarah; Wright, Jennifer
- Item"Homosexual Panic" in Turn of the Century Gothic Literature(2013-11-04) Imko, Victor; Carens, Tim; Duvall, Mike$; Kelly, Joe$