Browsing Electronic Theses by Issue Date "2014-08-26"
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- ItemAnalysis of Father/Daughter Relationships in Contemporary Chicana Fiction(2014-08-26) Collins, Rachel; Farrell, Susan; Horan, Thomas; Piepmeier, AlisonFather/daughter relationships in Chicana literature are portrayed as rather volatile relationships with the constant portrayal of macho fathers and unruly daughters. Through analyzing a sample of works written by Chicana/Latina authors, the reader can see how a father functions within the home and how he influences the life of his daughter/s. Sandra Cisneros, in The House on Mango Street and Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories, Denise Chavez, in Face of an Angel, Helena Maria Viramontes in The Moths and Other Stories, Cherrie Moraga in Loving in the War Years, and Julia Alvarez in How the Garcia Girls Lost their Accents all portray daughters who struggle to overcome the pressures placed upon them by their fathers or their culture, some successfully breaking away and some falling prey to a machismo cultural system. The three types of father/daughter relationships that seem to be the most prevalent are relationships with macho fathers, relationships ending in the rejection of a father or Latino culture altogether, and relationships able to overcome machismo or cultural expectations resulting in functional relationships. The success of Chicana daughters lies in their ability to successfully negotiate between the borders of being a Chicana and an American, and this success is either made or broken based on the support from their families and the support or lack thereof they receive from their fathers.
- ItemAssessment of Multiple Stocking Strategies of Striped Bass in the Ashley River, South Carolina Using Multiplexed Microsatellite Panels(2014-08-26) Baltzegar, Jennifer Fountain; Denson, Michael; Chapman, Robert; Strand, Allan; Zimmerman, AnaStriped bass is an important sport and aquaculture species that is commonly stocked throughout the United States. Here we have developed three multiplexed panels that collectively incorporate twelve different established microsatellite loci. All loci were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Mendelian inheritance, and null alleles in two populations. Loci were comparably polymorphic in two river systems with similar allele size ranges observed. These multiplexed microsatellite panels were then used to assess the efficacy of multiple stocking strategies of striped bass in the Ashley River, South Carolina. Distinct genetic families (offspring from one female x three males) were used in order to distinguish separate treatment groups. Two size classes of striped bass were stocked to determine the best size and/or season for contributing to the population. Phase I (45 mm) fish were stocked in the spring, while phase II (150 mm) fish were stocked in the fall after water temperatures cooled. Separate genetic families of phase II fish were initially reared in freshwater and brackish water to determine if initial rearing salinity affects post-stocking survival. Few phase I fish were recaptured indicating that the treatment group did not survive the initial summer. Phase II fish from both rearing salinities were recaptured throughout a 2.5 year sampling period, suggesting that the Ashley River has sufficient habitat and resources to support a population of striped bass; however, more fish from the brackish water-rearing facility were recaptured during the first year after stocking. This may indicate that there is habitat partitioning by rearing salinity occurring during the first year at large. Additional stocking and expanded monitoring of the population should be conducted to better elucidate these findings.
- ItemBarnacle Growth as an Indicator of the Onset and Duration of the Clinical Symptoms of Debilitated Turtle Syndrome Affecting Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtles(2014-08-26) Sloan, Kelly; Zardus, John; Jones, Martin; Owens, David; Griffin, DuBose; Boylan, ShaneDebilitated Turtle Syndrome (DTS) has become a growing concern for sea turtles in South Carolina, and in recent years (2000-2010) has accounted for an increasing percentage of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) strandings in the state. Although the causes of DTS are unknown, loggerheads stranding with DTS are characteristically emaciated, hypoglycemic, anemic, and heavily encrusted with epibiota. The illness is thought to ultimately weaken the turtle to the point that it floats at the water's surface, restricting the animal to an environment that predisposes it to heavy recruitment of the barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria on the carapace and soft tissue. The time it takes for debilitated loggerheads to manifest this heavy barnacle load is unknown. Our study measured how barnacle growth rate correlates with several environmental factors and experimentally tested whether barnacle recruitment on loggerhead scute varied between debilitated and non-debilitated individuals. Floating arrays holding test panels consisting of four treatments (debilitated turtle scute, non-debilitated turtle scute, Plexiglas, and slate tile) were placed at four independent experimental sites near Charleston, South Carolina. Results from two seasons (2009 and 2010) indicate that the larvae of the turtle barnacle C. testudinaria recruit at significantly higher rates along the open shore but do not recruit differentially to the four substrates. Growth rates for this barnacle are also higher in open water but do not vary with substratum type. Overall, individual barnacles had a mean growth rate of roughly 6.3 mm2/day on sea turtle carapace substrates.
- ItemBirds of a Feather Flock Together Reloaded: Homophily in the Context of Web 2.0 in Online Social Networking Sites such as Facebook(2014-08-26) Fischer, Mia; Ruth-McSwain, Amanda; Ferguson, Doug; Moscowitz, LeighFacebook recently registered its 400 millionth user. Positioning itself as a leader of interactive, participant-based online Web 2.0 media, Facebook promises to change how we communicate in part by digitally mapping and linking peripatetic people across space and time. As socio-demographic boundaries are torn down, it may seem as if Facebook runs counter to decades of sociological research on what is known as "homophily" the tendency of individuals to associate only with like-minded people---similarity breeds connection. The present study investigated how the concept of homophily, taken out of its traditional interpersonal, face-to-face context, is evident in relationships on Facebook. A triangulation of both qualitative and quantitative methods in form of an online survey (N = 447) as well as a content analysis of Facebook profiles (N = 159) was employed among Facebook users. The major findings of this study suggest that Facebook users are aware of Web 2.0's connective tools to cross socio-demographic barriers. However, looking in particular at the demographics of Facebook users and those of their added friends, the evidence found of real and perceived homophily dimensions across the different methodologies employed in this study, as well as users' tendency to exclusively foster, maintain, and revive pre-existing "offline" relationships, counters the positivistic belief in interactive media disseminating user generated content with a participatory potential to enrich democracy in our society. Facebook rather continues to further these trodden paths of segregating factors---birds of a feather flocking together---by predominantly maintaining and promoting homophilious relations among its members.
- ItemBottlenose Dolphins and the Atlantic Blue Crab Fishery: A Study of Coincidence and Interaction in Charleston Harbor, SC(2014-08-26) Sturgeon, Nora; Owens, David; McFee, Wayne; Hughes, Melissa; Schwacke, Lori; Zolman, EricThe Atlantic blue crab fishery has been implicated in a significant number of entanglements, and the gear used is known to have caused injury and death to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) throughout the southeastern United States. In order to study this fishery interaction, boat-based surveys were carried out in Charleston Harbor, SC from April through October 2008. Observations were conducted for 313h over 3604.8km along a standard transect. During these surveys 2696 dolphins were counted through 646 sightings, 9425 buoys were observed and mapped, and dolphins were observed within 5m of 104 buoys. It was found that dolphins are sighted in the vicinity of Atlantic blue crab fishery gear more often than expected at random. Dolphins were observed engaged in behaviors hypothesized to increase the risk of entanglement. Specific individual dolphins are more likely to be sighted in the vicinity of gear, however no specific age or sex predominated. Interviews of local crab fishers were conducted to collect data regarding dolphin behaviors around gear and boats to assess the impact of dolphins on pots and catch. Results of this study will be used to formulate recommendations for managing dolphin interactions with the Atlantic blue crab fishery.
- ItemCharacterization of the Surf Zone Macrofauna at Folly Beach, South Carolina(2014-08-26) Wilkie, Jacquelyn M.; Harold, Antony S.; Anderson, William D.; Whitaker, David; Sancho, GorkaThe fish assemblage within the surf zone is widely variable consisting of a large number of individuals which represent a small number of species. Although a few species in the surf zone in the South Atlantic Bight have been well studied, data are lacking for most species, especially fishes. Many studies conducted within the surf zone have depicted snap shots of this dynamic community. The longest efforts have the duration of only a few years, which are incapable of depicting long term trends that may be associated with events such as decades of chronic beach renourishment and a rise in sea surface temperatures. This study conducted at Folly Beach is being used to evaluate long term changes to the macrofauna in the surf zone by comparing findings to a historic study conducted from 1969 to 1971. Data collected were analyzed to compare species richness and abundance between studies as well as between seasons. From July 2007 to March 2009, 83 hauls were pulled following a biweekly schedule. During this period, 1757 specimens were collected consisting of 109 swimming invertebrates and 1648 fishes. These organisms represented 38 species (10 invertebrate, 28 fishes), 30 genera (7 invertebrate, 23 fish) and 19 families (3 invertebrate, 16 fish). Species richness and abundance was significantly higher during the summer of 2007 than any other season sampled in this study. The number of species caught in each season was significantly lower than found in the previous study. The numbers caught were also significantly lower than in the previous study for every season except spring. These trends are primarily due to dramatic decreases in the numbers of previously dominant species.
- ItemDescription of Periodicity and Location of Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Spawning in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina(2014-08-26) Renkas, Brock; Reichert, Marcel; Denson, Mike; Sancho, Gorka; Roumillat, BillNo published literature exists regarding the location, daily and seasonal periodicity of red drum spawning in South Carolina. Studies from North Carolina and Georgia report that red drum typically spawn in aggregations during afternoon or evening hours in late summer and early fall, at water temperatures between approximately 25 and 30°C. The objective of this study was to describe the location, timing, and physical and environmental cues associated with red drum spawning in South Carolina. Acoustic observations at the entrance to Charleston Harbor during August and September of 2008 indicated an aggregation of drumming male red drum at a previously suspected spawning site. Acoustic recordings showed that aggregated drumming was underway as of August 28 and continued every day through a peak water temperature of approximately 30°C until September 23, when water temperature dropped below 25.5°C. Drumming began daily around noon, peaking in volume between 1430 and 1700 hours, and ending by around 2000 hours (dusk). Plankton sampling captured red drum eggs from August 7 to September 26, 2008. Early-staged eggs were captured every sampling date from August 12 through September 11, confirming that spawning had occurred less than two hours previously. The influence of decreasing temperature and day length on cessation of spawning in Charleston Harbor was corroborated by conducting laboratory trials on red drum held in captivity. Captive fish in three tanks were exposed to the same photoperiods and water temperatures which occurred in Charleston Harbor during the month of September, 2008 while monitoring spawning occurrence. During laboratory trials, 97% of spawning events took place between 29.9 and 25.5°C, confirming that captive spawning ceased at a temperature similar to the observed 25.5°C which marked the last spawning in Charleston Harbor. This study therefore presents new data on the location and timing of red drum spawning in South Carolina.
- ItemDiamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) of Charleston, South Carolina: Population Estimate, Sex Ratios and Distribution(2014-08-26) Broyles, Elizabeth; Owens, David; Welch, Allison; Roumillat, William; Levesque, ErinVery little is known about the current population number, sex ratio, and distribution of Diamondback terrapin populations in Charleston, South Carolina estuaries. Terrapins were caught in the Ashley River, and population estimates were calculated using mark and recapture techniques and analyzed using the MARK program. Population size was estimated to be 3060 with a 95% confidence interval of 1964-4156. This gives around 179-378 terrapins per km² of marsh habitat. The sex ratio was 1.7:1 male biased (p<0.001). Investigations into changes in land usage were used to reveal reasons for change in terrapin abundance in the watersheds of the Ashley River, the Wando River and the Charleston Harbor from 1995-2009. The number of terrapins caught at all Wando River sites combined significantly decreased during the study period (r=0.83, p<0.001). There has been approximately 12.9 km² (10% of 127.72 km²) of land use change in the Wando River watershed from 1996-2006. Diamondback terrapin abundance, estimated via catch per unit effort, has remained constant for most of the Ashley River and Charleston Harbor areas. Land use change has been minimal (≤2%) in both of these watersheds during the same time frame. The Wando River, on the other hand, had a significant decline in terrapin CPUE and also had a much greater amount (10%) of land use change. Land use can encroach on terrapin habitats, nesting sites and impact food and foraging areas. If the declining trend of the terrapin population in the Wando River continues, regulatory intervention may need to be considered. This information on population size, sex ratios, and distribution can be used as a baseline to track long term changes in terrapin populations.
- ItemDiscovery of Blood Protein Biomarkers of Domoic Acid Toxicosis in California Sea Lions, (Zalophus californianus)(2014-08-26) Ferrante, Jason Allan; Janech, Michael G.; Arthur, John M.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.As Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms continue to increase in size, range and frequency along the west coast of the United States, increasing occurrences of domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) in California sea lions is expected to co-occur. Current methods to diagnose sea lions that do not display symptoms of DAT at the time of stranding are time consuming and often inconclusive. Domoic acid is estimated to clear the body of a sea lion in 24 hours, making direct detection difficult. This thesis describes the use of proteomic techniques to explore the blood proteome of the California sea lion in order to discover protein biomarkers of DAT. Three aims were addressed. The first was to optimize a methodology for the depletion of high abundance proteins from plasma prior to performing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE). The second aim was utilize the methodology from the first aim to compare the plasma proteomes of sea lions with and without DAT. The final aim was to target a smaller segment of the proteome (cytokines) for comparison with a commercially available assay. The ProteoMiner column was used to normalize plasma protein concentration prior to 2DGE. Comparison of the plasma proteomes of the sea lions yielded 25 proteins that were significantly different. Haptoglobin has been identified as one of the 25, and combined with its putative dominant charge forms, shows promise as a candidate biomarker. Serum cytokine concentrations, when assessed as a group using a neural network model, can remove DAT from the differential diagnosis of a sea lion.
- ItemElizabeth I and Representations of the Body Politic(2014-08-26) Thompson, Katie Marie; McCandless, Amy T.; Coy, Jason; Neulander, JoelleWhen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558, expectations of her reign were low. Her half-sister Mary bequeathed her a country financially weak, religiously divided, and politically impotent. Elizabeth's councilors and advisors saw only one path to England's recovery: the queen was to marry and produce a male heir. Elizabeth, however, refused to allow her female body to limit her ability to rule her country. The crown symbolized more that the physical body of the ruler who wore it; it stood for the people and country of England. Building on notions of the body politic reaching back to Plato, affirmed by early Christians, and revived by civic humanists in the Renaissance, Elizabeth realized the importance of the "Idea of Monarchy" and used this imagery to great success in her speeches, writings, and representations. This thesis will argue that Elizabeth used the body politic as her main form of political propaganda, and due to her successful employment of such rhetoric her reign is now seen as a golden age in English history.
- ItemEnvironmental Influences on Tropical Stream Fish, El Imposible National Park, El Salvador(2014-08-26) Haywood, Kenneth Paul III.; Harold, Tony; Jones, Martin; Komar, Oliver; Roumillat, BillHuman influence on the natural environment has resulted in habitat loss and degradation of tropical freshwater ecosystems. The ichthyofauna that inhabit these streams have become the most threatened class of vertebrates worldwide, urging research on the assemblages of these species to provide information on their ecology for future rehabilitation and recovery efforts. Despite the threats that are faced by these species, much of the tropical fish diversity remains unknown due to inadequate study. The objective of this project was to investigate the fish species of terra firma streams in El Imposible National Park, and determine the factors that exert the highest influence on the fish. The collected information may be used in future studies, and in conservation and recovery programs. A total of six species were identified from the study area. ANOVA and linear regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between habitat and species richness and diversity. For one prolific species, Profundulus guatemalensis, which ranges between Mexico and Nicaragua, I analyzed average total length as a fitness indicator, revealing potential factors that explain its apparent local abundance.
- ItemForster at the "Fag-End of Victorian Liberalism": Rehabilitating the Imperial Homosexual(2014-08-26) Walmsley, Sydney Sian; Kelly, Joseph; Carens, Timothy; Horan, ThomasThe illegality of homosexuality throughout British history, particularly through the British Empire, is often considered mainly in the context of Christian and Victorian social mores. While Christian and Victorian mentality cannot be separated from the imperial project, the homosexuality issue, particularly the issue of those partaking in homosexual actions in the British center, is rarely viewed as an extension of colonial dominance and suppression. Rather, the progression of the homosexuality laws in the Victorian era were developed to farther adhere the entirety of humanity to what the British perceived as the height of human culture. The Offenses Against the Person Acts of the later half of the century reduce the sentence for sodomy from death to forced labor, therein trying to impose Victorian social structure, or heteronormality, upon those seen as sodomites. Or rather, the Victorians attempted to rehabilitate those who partook in homosexual activities through hard labor. E. M. Forster addresses this issue of social normalization throughout the course of his works, and ultimately fights the notion of rehabilitation of persona so as to suit a specific culture.
- ItemGroundwater-Surface Water Interactions in a Lowland Watershed: Evaluation of Source Contribution(2014-08-26) Garrett, Catherine Guinn; Vulava, Vijay; Callahan, Timothy; Jones, Martin; Hitchcock, DanielThe U.S. southeastern, lower coastal plain is a region undergoing rapid urbanization as a result of expansive population growth. Land use change has been shown to affect watershed hydrology by dramatically altering stream flow and ultimately, impairing water quality and ecologic health. However, because very few long-term studies have focused on groundwater-surface water interactions in lowland watersheds, it is difficult to establish what the impact of development might be in the coastal plain region. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to identify the hydrologic processes that influence coastal, lowland watersheds as well as; (2) validate a conceptual model of source contribution to stream flow. Hydrological monitoring and water sample collection from groundwater, soil water, precipitation, and stream sites was conducted over a two-year period at a watershed located in the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC (Upper Turkey Creek [UTC] and Watershed 80 [WS-80]). All water samples collected were analyzed for major anions and cations to identify potential natural tracers present. Stream flow at UTC and WS-80 was ephemeral and highly dependent on evapotranspiration rates and rainfall amount and intensity. EMMA at UTC using Cl--, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Si as tracer concentrations helped identify hyporheic groundwater, shallow groundwater, soil water, and precipitation as potential sources to stream flow. Hydrograph separation with EMMA for a series of storm events suggested that source contribution to stream flow varied as a function of antecedent moisture condition; stream flow during dry conditions was dominated by both soil water (up to 65%) and precipitation (up to 66%) contributions whereas stream flow during wet conditions was dominated by precipitation (as much as 70%). The results of this study helped refine a conceptual model that can be used to examine potential impacts of development on important hydrologic processes (groundwater recharge, interflow, runoff, etc.) that influence stream flow in these lowland watersheds.
- ItemInsect Availability for Swallow-tailed Kites (Elanoides forficatus) in Four Human-managed Habitats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina(2014-08-26) Baird, Tera Keeler; Whitehead, Maria; Scholtens, Brian; Mills, Lindeke; Jordan, NeilSwallow-tailed Kites (Elanoides forficatus) utilize a mosaic of forested wetlands and open habitats during the breeding season. Current habitat conservation objectives for breeding Swallow-tailed Kites are limited to forested wetlands despite the overwhelming evidence that open habitats are used for foraging to meet daily and seasonal energy needs. This research analyzes the insect resources available to Swallow-tailed Kites in four human managed landscapes: crop, pasture, managed wetlands, and fallow fields across the coastal plain of South Carolina. By determining resource availability in certain human-managed landscapes, we will better understand the temporal and spatial distribution of prey. This information is important for both conservation planning and the resource management for the species.
- ItemMolecular Ecology of the Barnacle Megabalanus coccopoma Over its Introduced Range in the Southeastern U.S.(2014-08-26) Williamson, Tucker; Zardus, John D.; Knott, David M.; Sotka, Erik E.; Hughes, MelissaInvasion ecology is emerging as an increasingly important field as scientists try to understand the extent of human influence on the environment. The dispersal of introduced species may be studied on a global scale through the use of advanced molecular tools. The recent arrival of Megabalanus coccopoma, a Pacific tropical barnacle, to the southeastern coast of the United States provides an opportunity to study its establishment and subsequent expansion northward using these molecular tools. The genetic variation of populations of M. coccopoma along the southeastern coast of the U.S. was characterized through analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. These analyses yielded high genetic diversity with low nucleotide diversity. The near absence of genetic structure suggests a well-mixed population with high larval dispersal; however, thirteen individuals from a single population in Florida were highly divergent, suggesting recruitment from an unknown and highly divergent source population or a cryptic species. Haplotype data suggest possible hybrization between the anomalous individuals and M. coccopoma. Following initial anthropogenic transport, ocean currents play a key role in the spread and establishment of this barnacle, while limited studies suggest that salinity and temperature are the most important abiotic factors determining its distributional limits. Ocean currents and salinity patterns in the southeastern U.S. show very little variation across the last 30 years, whereas ocean surface temperatures have increased across successive years. The warming of the eastern coastal waters of the U.S. provides an avenue for the range expansion of M. coccopoma, and likely other tropical and subtropical marine species. While this study establishes a baseline genetic characterization of the species in a newly invaded habitat, basic ecological studies are needed to fully understand the influence of abiotic factors on the distribution of M. coccopoma survival and dispersal.
- ItemMolecular Genetics of the Coral Holobiont(2014-08-26) Wham, Francis Condon, Jr.; Dustan, Phillip; Byrum, Christine; Wiseman, Reid; Zimmerman, AnastasiaThe symbiotic union between a community of prokaryotes, and photosynthetic dinoflagellates with a multicellular anthozoan host is known as the coral holobiont. The reciprocal exchange of nutrients between the members of the holobiont allows for efficient nutrient recycling. This relationship contributes to the success of corals in a naturally oligotrophic and variable environment. Investigations of how environmental change affects the various members of the holobiont are important in forecasting how climate change and growing human populations may impact these partnerships. Here I present three studies examining the impact of various environmental perturbations on members of the coral holobiont. The fine-scale genetic resolution offered by the molecular techniques used in these studies provides insights on how the identity, diversity and ecology of the members of the coral holobiont change in response to environmental perturbation.
- ItemPrejudicial to the Public Health: Class, Race, and the History of Land Reclamation, Drainage, and Topographic Alteration in Charleston, South Carolina, 1836-1940(2014-08-26) Shedlock, Christina; Poole, William Scott; Hopkins, George; Taylor, Kerry; Coy, DavidOver the span of a century, elite white Charlestonians wielded disproportionate control over working class whites and, to an even greater degree, African Americans, as they shaped the topography in a city whose society was rigidly hierarchical along both class and racial lines. The thesis examines a period from 1836 to the start of World War II to show the evolution of municipal government and the city's handling of public health issues surrounding drainage and low lying areas, as well as the changing motivations for filling. Special attention is paid to how the reclamation projects were funded, public versus private interest, public health, and political and class issues interwoven with land reclamation and drainage. The study utilizes primary documents such as City Council Minutes, City Yearbooks, period newspapers, and numerous other municipal publications. Class and economic issues played an important role in the way that the city was shaped and altered, and these societal factors are evident in how the municipal government addressed landfill and drainage in different parts of the city. The elite class' involvement in city politics allowed them to control the evolving shape of Charleston, and they further influenced the topography in their capacity as private landowners, developers, and economic leaders. Charleston's population and physical area grew slower than contemporary cities because of the values and actions of the elite class. Race also played a role in the elite government's response to improvement needs and topographic issues. While working class residents of both races lived in low lying areas prone to disease and flooding, receiving less improvement funding from the municipal government than residents in upper class residential sections, African American housing areas were at the lowest end of the spectrum. In essence, the elite government prioritized reclamation projects and improvements in wealthy sections to the detriment of the working class, with African Americans on the lowest rung in a city divided by class and further by race. The thesis is the first work to study topographic alteration in Charleston in depth, within the context of class and race in the city's history.
- ItemRecruitment of Stocked Juvenile Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to the Adult Population in South Carolina(2014-08-26) Gerhard, Joy; Denson, Michael R.; Reichert, Marcel J.M.; Roumillat, William A.; Owens, David W.; Darden, Tanya L.Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is a popular food and recreational fishery species along the southeast U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Although contribution of stocked fish to the wild population in South Carolina has been measured immediately following stocking up to age two, evaluation of stocked fish recruitment to the adult population has not yet been examined and therefore is the focus of this research. Small juveniles (~30 mm TL) were stocked in the Ashley and Wando Rivers of Charleston Harbor in 1999 - 2002 by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR). Five years after initial stocking (2004 - 2008), adults were sampled via longline nearshore of four major South Carolina estuaries, and tissue samples were collected for genetic analysis. Genotypes of sampled fish were compared to those of broodstock and it was determined that small stocked juveniles do recruit to the adult stock in South Carolina, with a highly localized contribution near Charleston Harbor. Contribution of the identified stocked fish was estimated via several different methods. Contribution to the stocked year classes in particular were estimated by using length data as well as otolith-based age data collected before and during the sampling period. The percentage of the Charleston Harbor adult population identified as stocked fish from three stocked year classes ranged from 5.8% to 66.0% with the most preferred method, using age-length keys, yielding a contribution estimate of 34.9%. Such a high contribution has the potential to cause deleterious genetic and reproductive effects, though the broodstock husbandry and stocking protocol used by SCDNR is designed to minimalize these effects. Additionally, contribution of this magnitude might allow stocked fish to be used as biomarkers to gain a better understanding of the basic population parameters of adults in South Carolina for management.
- ItemReproductive Analysis of Southern and Gulf Flounders (Paralichthys lethostigma and P. albigutta) in South Carolina Based on Scuba Surveys(2014-08-26) Tucker, Charles R.; Reichert, Marcel; Sancho, Gorka; Roumillat, Bill; Strand, AllanSpecimens of southern and Gulf flounders were collected by SCDNR and recreational divers off the South Carolina coast using scuba from 2007-2010. Reproductive development was analyzed using histologically prepared gonad tissues. Interviews were conducted with recreational divers to examine local ecological knowledge of flounder spawning. A drifter release experiment was conducted to determine surface water movement patterns as a proxy for potential larval dispersal. Long-term datasets from SCDNR were analyzed for flounder catches. The effect of freezing on histological sections of gonad tissues was investigated, and data suggested maximum oocyte diameters may provide a rapid means to stage tissues with freezing damage. Gulf flounder with hydrated oocytes were collected using scuba gear at five artificial reefs off SC during January-March at 18-29 m depth and 12-15ºC bottom temperature. Observations suggested that flounder spawning behavior includes "stacking" and that Gulf flounder spawn during late afternoon, evening, or night. Spawning frequency of Gulf flounder was estimated to be 2-3 days from January through March. Southern flounder were rarely observed during the spawning season (December-March). Bottom temperatures at dive sites remained less than 17ºC during these months. Recreational divers collected the majority of southern flounder in October and in May off Little River Inlet, SC. Data suggested that southern flounder were migrating through those sites to spawning locations elsewhere. Southern flounder likely spawn in deeper water, beyond the safe depth limits of recreational scuba diving or migrate further south to warmer waters to spawn.
- ItemRepublican Motherhood in the Words of Women(2014-08-26) Farr, Ivy Elizabeth; Slater, Sandra; Delay, Cara; Preston, DavidSince Linda Kerber published her influential book Women of the Republic in 1985, historians have characterized women of the early national period as "republican mothers," but to what extent did women themselves internalize the ideal? This study examines the prescriptive literature and private letters written by Benjamin Rush, who modern historians tout as one of the greatest supporters of republican motherhood, in contrast to the letters of one prominent Philadelphia woman, Esther Bowes Cox. Cox's background as a Patriot, a member of the upper class, and a friend of Benjamin Rush, prepared her well to support the ideal Linda Kerber calls republican motherhood, and yet, she did not. Furthermore, close examination of Rush's writings reveals that he advocated more practical education for women rather than political involvement in the new nation. This research challenges the widely accepted concept of republican motherhood and suggests that historians should reexamine the roles and interests of women in the Early Republic.