Browsing Electronic Theses by Issue Date "2014-08-25"
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- ItemDisraeli and Orientalism: Identity of Culture, Race, and Religion through his Romanticism of a "Jewish Race"(2014-08-25) Ness, Joshua; Grenier, Katherine; Diamond, Jeffrey; Mendelsohn, Adam; Coy, JasonThis study of Benjamin Disraeli examined the development of his Romantic identity of Jewishness through literature and politics during several crucial periods of his life. His struggles in youth with culture, race, and religion as a Christian convert from Judaism led him to travel with blooming promise of a 19th century Romantic. Thrilled by his Grand Tour, his early novels reflected a self-analytical creation of a Jewish and English identity, which was conceivably Eastern in nature. His Young England trilogy transposed his struggle of identity into a "Judaic-Christian" vision of faith for the English imagination, transfiguring the history of English tradition with a basis of Jewish inspiration. Through positively reversed Orientalism and discourse of the popular biblical "Holy Land," the English and British imagination came to develop a popular respect for this eccentric politician of Jewish origin. However, even under popular respect, his Jewish persona was a subject of anti-Semitic cartoons and works of his political opposition during the 1870s and the Eastern Question. This study reflects the power of imagination behind historiographical tradition in history.
- ItemDynamics of Nearly Circular Vortex Filaments(2014-08-25) Nelson, Sybil Prince; Calini, Annalisa; LaFortune, Stephane; Dougherty, Martha; Mitchener, GarrettWe derive a model for the dynamics of a pair of nearly-circular vortex filaments, and obtain a system of coupled partial differential equations that incorporate both the self-induced dynamics due to the vorticity of each filament and the interaction of the two filaments. Our derivation follows the one by Klein, Majda, and Damodaran  for the case of nearly-parallel vortex filaments. The evolution equations for nearly circular vortex filaments contain a curvature dependent term in the self-induction component of the vector field. Such component is obtained by linearizing the Vortex Filament Equation around a circle. We discuss special time-independent solutions using perturbation methods and Fourier-series methods for the associated partial differential equations.
- ItemEarly Twentieth Century Transportation Technology and the Creation of Modern American Culture(2014-08-25) Puricelli, Frank T.; Ingram, Tammy; Renouard, Joseph; Knee, Stuart; Coy, JasonThis thesis will argue that the development of personal land transportation, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, greatly influenced American culture and created the foundation for the modern consumerist world we live in today. The period between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was an incredible time in American history full of new inventions, possibilities and dreams for the upcoming century. The world itself seemed to grow smaller, due mainly to technological advancements in transportation and communication. At the forefront of this revolution in personal transportation, were the bicycle, motorcycle and automobile. Beginning with the invention of the bicycle and ending with the popularization of the automobile, American society permanently transformed because of the dependency on these new transportation technologies. By meeting the needs of the general public, producers of such advancements, unknowing laid the foundation for the modern consumerist age. Without transportation technology leading this revolution, the world as we know it could be very different.
- ItemEffects of Dietary Antioxidants on Oxidative Status and Disease Resistance in the Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei(2014-08-25) Petty, Aaron Christopher; Burnett, Karen G.; Burnett, Louis E.; Browdy, Craig L.; Leffler, John W.Three studies were performed to assess whether dietary antioxidants ethoxyquin or astaxanthin improved oxidative status, disease resistance and/or growth in juvenile Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The potential detrimental effects of including oxidized oils in shrimp diets were examined using the same metrics of growth, oxidative status and immune defense. For each diet study testing the ethoxyquin blend (Diet Study I, II), shrimp were fed one of four diet regimens for 4 weeks (Diet Study I) or 6 weeks (Diet Study II). Two of the diets contained oxidized menhaden oil (peroxide value 200 meq/kg) to assess the impact of oxidized oil in shrimp rations. In the third study, shrimp were fed diets with or without the carotenoid astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Both astaxanthin diets incorporated oxidized menhaden oil, and lacked supplemental vitamin E. In all three studies animal weights and resistance to challenge with the bacterium Vibrio campbellii were measured periodically over the course of the study. At the conclusion of each study, oxidative damage and stress was measured in the hepatopancreas of each diet group using assays for lipid peroxidation (LPx) and glutathione (GSH). When included in the diet of juvenile L. vannamei neither the ethoxyquin blend nor astaxanthin had a significant impact on growth, resistance to bacterial disease, levels of oxidative damage or oxidative stress. However, levels of LPx, measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly higher in shrimp fed diets containing highly oxidized menhaden oil without vitamin E than in animals fed fresh oil diets. A temporal decline in immunocompetence was also observed across Diet Studies I and II, suggesting that the bacterial challenge assay has sufficient power to reveal changes in immunocompetence, and that an unknown stressor is to blame for the observed decline. Although the present study did not reveal any significant changes in regard to antioxidant supplementation, disease remains a problem in shrimp aquaculture, and dietary supplementation with antioxidants should theoretically be a promising disease prevention option for increasing resistance of shrimps to pathogens.
- ItemEffects of the Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticide, Permethrin, on Two Estuarine Fish Species(2014-08-25) Parent, Lindsey M.; Advisor; DeLorenzo, Marie; Fulton, Michael; Burnett, Karen; Roumillat, WilliamPesticides can enter coastal waters via posing a risk to non-target aquatic species. Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used in various settings to control insect pests. This study examined the effects of permethrin on two species of fish found in South Carolina estuaries, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). The 96h LC50, NOEC, and LOEC of permethrin were determined for both species representing different size classes. Sublethal cellular stress effects of permethrin were also assessed. Lipid peroxidation activity of the liver was significantly higher in permethrin-treated fish compared to control animals after 24h and significantly lower after 96h. Permethrin had no effect on liver somatic index, or on acetylcholinesterase activity of the brain at the concentrations tested. Permethrin exposure (96h) significantly inhibited splenocyte proliferation. Most of the effects of permethrin on fish cellular stress enzymes and survival occurred at concentrations higher than those measured in the environment. These findings will further understanding of the effects of permethrin on estuarine organisms and may prove useful to the future management and regulation of pyrethroid insecticide use near estuarine habitats.
- ItemFamilies in Wartime Manchester: A New Look at the World War II British Home Front(2014-08-25) Mosteller, Benjamin Townsend; Grenier, Katherine; Delay, Cara; Neulander, JoelleThe World War II British home front has garnered a considerable amount of attention from historians. Most of these works, though, center on class struggles, morale, and women's roles, and they are mostly concerned with London. This paper addresses the historiographical gaps by concentrating on family life during the war in the industrial city of Manchester. Drawing largely from newspaper and personal memoir sources, it concludes that family members in wartime Manchester were able to maintain their sense of their familial roles in the midst of chaos, bombings and separation. Children were obedient and loyal citizens, donating to scrap metal campaigns and working in fields. Mothers, while many had new responsibilities in the workforce, continued to care for their children and perform domestic duties. Fathers, though their sense of their manhood was jeopardized by not fighting in the armed services, still maintained a protective role by building shelters for their families and fighting fires. All the while, families aided in the war effort while being bombed out of their homes and living in shelters. Using the family as an analytical framework allows us to see how an important fabric of society lived and died throughout the war.
- ItemFeeding Ecology of the Sandbar Shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) in South Carolina Estuaries Using delta 13C and delta15N Stable Isotope Analysis(2014-08-25) Shiffman, David Samuel; Sancho, Gorka; Kucklick, John; Abel, Daniel; Roumilliat, WilliamShark populations worldwide have greatly declined since the 1970s, and an ecosystem-based fisheries management plan would improve how U.S. shark species are managed. This study utilized stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (delta13C and delta15N) to examine the feeding ecology of a heavily exploited shark species, the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus. Data from this study can be used for a future ecosystem-based fishery management plan. Two hundred and sixty two sandbar sharks were sampled in five South Carolina estuaries. There were no significant differences in delta13C or delta 15N between estuaries, years or between male and female sharks, indicating that diet does not change between years, estuaries, or sexes. There were significant differences in delta13C (F=62.9, P=<0.0001) and delta 15N (F= 6.43, P=0.012) signatures between young-of-year (YOY) and juvenile sharks, indicating that South Carolina's sandbar sharks have an ontogenetic diet shift similar to a shift described in Virginia and Hawaii populations. Juvenile sandbar sharks in South Carolina have a wider diet breadth than YOY sharks, which is a common pattern found in elasmobranchs. This study demonstrates that non-lethal sampling methods can obtain the kind of data needed for fisheries managers.
- ItemFloral Phenotypic Integration of Eight Brassicaceae Species from Native and Non-native Environments(2014-08-25) Penrod, Megan; Murren, Courtney; Cory, Wendy; Strand, Allan; Rutter, MattBy studying the co-variation of traits that are functionally and genetically linked in organisms that are closely related, or by comparing patterns of integration between populations with different ecologies, we can better understand the evolution of the whole organism phenotype. In the following study, I addressed how populations with different ecological histories differ in patterns of phenotypic integration in floral form by examining a set of native and non-native populations. I examined six closely related Brassica species, and two species of Raphanus to investigate the signal of shared ancestry on patterns of integration. Rarely have patterns of integration been examined through floral development, and here I demonstrated that changes in phenotype in the Brassicaceae do indeed occur across native and non-native environments, through developmental time, and across parental and hybrid taxa. Accounting for all the trait measurements taken in the study, the significant trait correlations between both short filament and long filament, and style length and ovary length are the only trait correlations that remain constant across all species and both origins. Overall, the functional hypothesis that the native origin would be more highly integrated than the non-native origin was upheld. In contrast to the functional hypothesis that hybrid Brassicaceae would be more highly integrated than their parental species, neither diploid nor polyploid species (as a group) were more highly correlated than the other in my data set. My results give further evidence for allopolyploid phenotypes exceeding diploid parents in level of integration for B. carinata . While there are many more questions regarding the evolution of complex phenotypes, my study with the Brassicaceae provides further insights into questions that remain from past research in the area of floral phenotypic integration.
- ItemGreat Hurricane of 1752: A Window into the Political Culture of Colonial South Carolina(2014-08-25) Neal David, Polhemus; Preston, David L.; Powers, Bernard E.; Mushal, Amanda R.The constitutional crisis between Governor James Glen and the South Carolina Commons House of Assembly following the September 1752 hurricane provides an example of the discord that characterized the colony. On several occasions during his administration Glen attempted to manipulate the colony's constitution by diminishing the powers granted the Commons House. The governor attempted to check the authority of the commissioners of the fortifications who were authorized to make contracts, purchase private property from citizens, and draw funds from the treasury. The conflict between Glen and the Commons House is an example of how elites retained the authority that they had gained over the past three decades at the expense of the royal prerogative in the colony. The strong rhetoric used by both sides during the conflict reflects the tensions between colonial and imperial elites in South Carolina during the 1750s. Many of the larger issues contained in these disputes contributed to South Carolinians' eventual decision to seek their independence from Great Britain. Thus, the hurricane of 1752 enables us to better understand the political culture of South Carolina and its colonial constitution in the era prior to the American Revolution.
- ItemImportance of Vegetation in a Statewide Carbon Budget Using GIS: A Case Study of the Lowcountry, SC(2014-08-25) Paz, Enma Lucia; Levine, Norm; Watson, Annette; Gramling, Joel; Mills, LaneyWith growing acknowledgement of, and interest in, the issue of global warming, it is of increased importance to study the local scale effects of climate change in our communities. Understanding the chemical, physical and biological realms of our immediate surroundings should be among top priorities, especially as our human population takes primary blame for the rapid changes occurring throughout our planet. Given this identified anthropogenic pressure, this thesis project assesses the importance of vegetation within the Lowcountry region of South Carolina for its role in carbon sequestration. The research has been carried out through a local analysis of a larger-scale statewide carbon budget, calculated according to the U.S. EPA's State Inventory Tools for carbon (and other greenhouse gases) sources and sinks. In addition to the inventory's results, GIS land use changes, coupled with social theory and demographics analyses have been used to establish grounds for the conservation and restoration of vegetation throughout the state of South Carolina. These strategies address both the quantified importance of natural green-space (for its valuable process of carbon uptake and other ecosystem services) and the need for sustainable economic growth throughout the Lowcountry. Since these assessments have yet to be done in South Carolina, I will articulate how the information can be significant for environmental policy. The forthcoming recommendations will address acknowledgement and mitigation of our community's role in local and global climate change.
- ItemInfluence of Amenity Migration on Land-Use Planning in Jackson County, North Carolina: A Political Ecology Approach(2014-08-25) Rowland, Jessica McCallum; Hurley, Patrick T.; Watson, Annette; Doyle, Briget; Hyman, Jeremy HymanAmenity migration generates a unique set of environmental management conflicts. These conflicts have been well studied in the Western United States, but there has been little research directed towards the Eastern United States and in particular southern Appalachia. This gap in the literature is addressed by presenting a case study from the mountains of Western North Carolina. Using Q methodology, this project asks how the opinions of amenity migrants concerning two controversial land use ordinances differ from those of other rural land users (i.e. long-term rural residents, local government officials, and real estate agents/developers) and examines how the convergence and divergence in opinions may shape future local environmental management. At issue are differing ideas of "nature" and "rural" as the county transforms from an economy based in natural resource extraction to one focused on real estate development. This project hopes to contribute to the study of amenity migration and environmental management by applying a political ecology analysis to a previously understudied region.
- ItemPersistent Organic Pollutants in Blood Plasma of Adult Male Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)(2014-08-25) Ragland, Jared M.; Keller, Jennifer; Kucklick, John; Owens, David; Segars, AlOrganohalogen contaminant (OHC) threats remain largely a mystery for threatened loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). This study examines regional-scale OHC differences in the blood plasma of adult male C. caretta based on movement patterns monitored by satellite tracking. Turtles were captured in the Cape Canaveral, FL, shipping channel in the summers of 2006 and 2007 and fitted with satellite transmitters as part of a NMFS project conducted by the SCDNR; blood was sampled from each captured animal. Samples from selected individuals were analyzed for legacy contaminants (organochlorine pesticides [17 OCPs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [74 PCB congeners]) and contaminants of emerging concern (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [27 PBDE congeners]) using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Turtles selected were tracked for an average of 140 days. One group (n=9) remained in the capture vicinity; another group migrated northward along the eastern US coast during summer months becoming established in areas largely from south of Pamlico Sound, NC, to north of Cape May, NJ (n=10). Migratory adult male C. caretta showed elevated blood plasma concentrations of five OCPs and ΣPBDEs (p<0.05). Atypical PBDE patterns were detected in migratory adults with PBDE 154 as the dominant congener; PBDE 47 is the dominant congener reported in most wildlife. Additionally, PCB concentrations were slightly elevated in the migratory group and congener patterns differed between the two groups. This study lends support to the idea that foraging location can have a dramatic effect on OH contaminant exposure in highly mobile species such as C. caretta. Understanding patterns of contamination informs wildlife managers about possible health risks to certain subpopulations. In addition, this study is the first to examine OH in the rarely studied adult male sea turtle and to couple contaminant measurements with satellite tagging.
- ItemPhylogeny of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the development of a qPCR-based diagnostic assay for its detection(2014-08-25) Pollock, F. Joseph; Morris, Pamela; Plante, Craig; Burnett, Karen; Bourne, David; Willis, BetteCoral disease has emerged over recent decades as a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, with declines in coral cover and diversity of Caribbean reefs providing an example of the potential impacts of disease at regional scales. If similar trends are to be mitigated or avoided on reefs worldwide, a deeper understanding of the factors underlying the origin and spread of coral diseases, as well as the steps that can be taken to prevent, control, or reduce their impacts is required. The coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus represents a good model system to study coral disease. It has been implicated as the etiological agent responsible for bleaching and tissue lysis in a number of scleractinian coral species throughout the Indo-Pacific and has been the focus of research efforts characterizing the organism's genome, proteome, and metabolome. Little is known, however, about the population genetics of V. coralliilyticus, its evolutionary history, or the population dynamics of this widely distributed species. In order to determine whether this bacterium exists as a single cosmopolitan clonal population, which might indicate rapid spread of a pandemic strain, or is grouped into endemic and genotypically distinct strains, a phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of geographically disparate isolates was conducted. Five phylogenetic marker genes (16S, rpoA, recA, pyrH, and dnaJ) frequently used for discriminating closely related Vibrio species and a zinc-metalloprotease gene (vcpA) linked to pathogenicity were sequenced in thirteen isolates collected from the Red and Caribbean Seas, and Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. No evidence of clonality or consistent lineage structure was observed, suggesting that V. coralliilyticus represents an endemic components of coral reef ecosystems that varies genetically among the globally distributed geographic locations sampled. To gain a more complete understanding of the epidemiology of V. coralliilyticus, including information on its distribution, incidence of infection, and rates of transmission throughout populations, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assay for V. coralliilyticus was developed. The assay, which targets the dnaJ gene, a housekeeping gene encoding for heat shock protein 40, was highly sensitive, detecting as little as 0.1 pg of purified V. coralliilyticus DNA and 104 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction (20 μL) for pure bacterial cultures. Inhibition of the assay by DNA and cells derived from bacteria other than V. coralliilyticus was minimal. These findings support the utility of this assay to target the pathogen within the complex coral holobiont. This assay represents a novel approach to coral disease diagnosis and provides a useful tool for coral pathogen detection and accurate diagnosis, which will play a vital role in advancing the field of coral disease research.