Browsing Electronic Theses by Issue Date "2014-08-22"
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- ItemAssessment of the Phytoremediation Potential of Six Populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata in Response to Elevated Soil Cadmium Levels(2014-08-22) Henson, Tessa Rattenbury; Rutter, Matt; Cory, Wendy; Gustafson, Danny; Murren, CourtneyWhen restoring degraded ecosystems from heavy metal contamination, ecosystem recovery is often not possible without some form of remediation to remove contaminants. One type of remediation is phytoremediation, which utilizes green plants to sequester, uptake, or degrade contaminants. Cadmium is one such contaminant, a heavy metal commonly found in excess in the terrestrial environment as a pollutant, with soil contamination levels ranging from 1mg/kg to levels in excess of 1020mg/kg. This study was conducted in two parts: 1) to assess between-population variation for tolerance and 2) to assess between-population variation for accumulating ability and metal allocation of six populations of a plant species never before tested for response to elevated soil cadmium levels, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata). Significant variation in tolerance, accumulating ability, and metal allocation was observed across the six populations of C. fasciculata, demonstrating a vast potential for application of Chamaecrista fasciculata in phytoremediation projects either through metal extraction or metal sequestration and revegetation.
- ItemBeacon Light: Immaculate Conception School's Encouragement of Charleston's Black Middle and Upper Classes(2014-08-22) Mayo, Joi; Powers, Bernard; Cox, MarcusThis is a study of Immaculate Conception School, (ICS) a private African American Catholic institution in Charleston, South Carolina founded in 1908, with particular emphasis on the years of 1930-1940. Its purpose is to show how black Catholic education in the city was intertwined with issues of class and status in the black community, while illustrating the efforts of African Americans to improve educational opportunities. African American parents utilized Immaculate Conception's challenging and competitive curriculum to prepare students for post-secondary institutions and ensure that they received the skills to remain in or enter the black middle and upper classes. As a result of the encouragement of their parents, members of the Oblate Sisters of Providence, and community leaders, a large number of ICS students completed college and entered professional occupations. In order to determine the background of the students and their mindsets, I have examined a variety of diverse sources, including the US Manuscript Census of Population from the years of 1920 and 1930, the Beacon Light which served as the school's newspaper and yearbook, and other materials. I also conducted interviews with several alumni and faculty of ICS. This study illustrates how Immaculate Conception School allowed African American youth to escape Charleston's social and economic structures that suppressed the development of blacks.
- ItemBritish and Roman Empires: An Examination of How and Why the British Used the Analogy of Roman Imperialism for Their Own Imperial Intentions(2014-08-22) Mazur, Amanda Katherine; Diamond, Jeffrey; Grenier, Katherine; Carens, TimRome has been used as an ideological identifier by many empires, and not least by the British Empire. There are many studies that have compared Victorian Britain and Rome, but few focus on an earlier period in British history, in which the foundations of Britain as the "New Rome" began to form. This thesis traces the initial relationship that was being forged by British politicians with regard to Rome, and most especially the ideas of Thomas Babington Macaulay. Macaulay championed Roman literature and history during his time in India. Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome and his "Minute on Indian Education" can both be used to trace his interest in Roman history, and this work shall discuss how Macaulay, as well as other politicians began to see Rome as their direct predecessor; an entity that should be emulated and superseded in order to create a strong British Empire. This thesis will argue that it is necessary to look at the early nineteenth century to garner an understanding of this ideological emulation, and that the ideas of cultural dissemination upon a native population were clearly formulated with the Roman model in mind. It will also analyze Roman and its empire to draw comparisons between Rome and Britain as well as to offer an insight into the imperial ideas of both empires.
- ItemCharacterization of the Bacterial Properties that Impair Respiration in the Atlantic Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus(2014-08-22) Johnson, Nathaniel Garver; Burnett, Karen; Burnett, Louis; Plante, Craig; Jorgensen, DarwinIn the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, injection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio campbellii causes a decrease in oxygen consumption. The physical obstruction of hemolymph flow through the gill vasculature, caused by aggregations of bacteria and hemocytes, appears to underlie the decrease in aerobic function associated with bacterial infection. We sought to elucidate the bacterial properties sufficient to induce a decrease in circulating hemocytes, reflecting hemocyte aggregation and decreased respiration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the primary component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall, is known to interact with crustacean hemocytes. Purified LPS was covalently bound to the surfaces of polystyrene beads, resembling bacteria in size. Injection of these "LPS beads" caused a decrease in circulating hemocytes comparable to that seen with V. campbellii injection, while beads alone failed to do so. These data suggest that in general, gram-negative bacteria could stimulate hemocyte aggregation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of different bacterial species on total hemocyte counts were assessed. Six of the seven gram-negative species tested caused decreases in circulating hemocytes, suggesting an important role for LPS in the induction of this response. However, LPS is not necessary to provoke the immune response, as a gram-positive bacterium, which lacks LPS, caused a decrease in circulating hemocytes. These results imply that a broad range of naturally-occurring bacteria could impair respiration in C. sapidus. To further verify the relationship between reduced circulating hemocyte counts and impaired respiration, we sought to evaluate the effects of selected treatments on oxygen uptake. In contrast to previous reports, injection of V. campbellii did not lead to a decrease in oxygen uptake. Interestingly, ventilatory pauses were observed following bacterial injection in crabs that had been starved for 72 h, but not 2 or 24 h. These results indicate that the immune response against bacteria can affect respiratory physiology and aerobic metabolism in ways that are more complicated than previously assumed.
- ItemEffects of Increased Temperature and CO2 on Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) Concentration in Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Associated Changes in Methionine Synthase Activity(2014-08-22) McLenon, Amanda Lorraine; DiTullio, Giacomo R.; Janech, Michael; Moeller, Peter; Sotka, ErikDinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium occur as endosymbionts in a variety of hosts including coral. Oxidative stress has been linked to a breakdown in this relationship, known as bleaching. The predicted increases in atmospheric pCO₂ will be accompanied by increased sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. The response of Symbiodinium spp. to environmental changes can dictate survival of their hosts and could contribute to the ecological success of coral reef ecosystems. Preliminary studies established high concentrations of the sulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in Symbiodinium spp. with increased temperature. This study examines the potential of DMSP as an antioxidant in the algae, Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP1633) isolated from a cnidarian host. Specifically, the synergistic effects of increased temperature and CO₂ were investigated. An HPLC assay for the activity of the enzyme B12-dependent methionine synthase was modified for use with algal cultures and used to determine whether production of methionine, a precursor to DMSP, was a potential point of regulation in an oxidative stress response. Increased CO₂ did not have a significant effect on any parameters measured. Yet DMSP was found to increase in cultures exposed to elevated temperature (33ºC), which correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), a drop in photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), and evidence of the photoprotective mechanism known as xanthophyll cycling. Cells also increased significantly in biovolume, and SYTO-BC stain indicated increased DNA content, suggesting arrested cell division. Methionine synthase activity did not correlate to DMSP concentration. This may be due to turnover of DMSP to other antioxidant compounds, inhibition of methionine synthase by nitric oxide, or switching to the B12-independent form of methionine synthase. The findings of this study provide insight into the responses of algal symbionts to environmental changes, and shed light on the potential use of DMSP and other known photoprotective mechanisms under oxidative stress.
- ItemEmpowering Women: The Role of Irish-American Nuns in Antebellum Charleston, 1820-1860(2014-08-22) Hopkins, Kristin Elizabeth; Delay, Cara; Slater, Sandra; Taylor, KerryThis thesis examines the pivotal roles of two orders of Irish-American women religious in Charleston between 1820 and 1860. These two groups, the Sisters of Mercy and the Ursulines, played a significant role in education, philanthropy, and social reform in the antebellum south. Building on the independence that their single status afforded them in Ireland, Irish-American nuns not only influenced the society and culture of Charleston; they also were able to transcend traditional southern gender norms. Nuns' abilities to defy normal gender standards in Charleston derived from their conscious decisions to reject marriage and to remain single, to free themselves from the attachments of material things and to live to follow God. While they were not always consciously making decisions to challenge gender norms, they deliberately existed outside of the traditional patriarchal family, even when their families wished differently, and their actions established them as educators and religious leaders. Nuns thus were able to help establish a central place in society for other women religious even as they empowered both the students that attended their schools and the entire Catholic community in Charleston.
- ItemExamination of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Abundances in Relation to Environmental Factors and Risks(2014-08-22) Huther, Kevin David; Scott, Geoffrey I.; Owens, David; Pennington, Paul; Roumillat, BillThe bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ) is the most abundant marine mammal in coastal regions of the southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico. Population abundances vary throughout their range and may be influenced by various environmental factors, including food availability and environmental quality. This study measured bottlenose dolphin abundances in Charleston, South Carolina against a variety of environmental factors. Metrics measured during 420 transects in the Ashley River and Wando River included dolphin abundances, boat traffic, water quality, sediment quality, and fish abundance. Three Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) Models were used to determine if environmental factors significantly affected dolphin abundance rates. A preliminary MLR (n=263 transects) revealed that dolphin abundance rates/study block were significantly related to boats/ study block and surface salinity. A Standardized MLR analysis (n=299) used dolphin and boat observations on a survey unit of effort basis , plus water temperature class categorizations and found that dolphin abundance rates/hour were significantly related to study blocks, surface water temperature class, and sediment quality. A Maximum Likelihood ANOVA (n=300) compared categorical classification of dolphins observation rates/hour, boat traffic rates/hour, sediment quality, and mean fish abundances/net, plus each environmental water quality metric. Dolphin abundances were only significantly related to water temperature class using this categorical MLR model.
- ItemImpacts of Underlying Stratigraphy, Inlet Formation, and Geomorphology on Coastal Sediment Dynamics: Capers Inlet Quadrangle, SC (USA)(2014-08-22) Luciano, Katherine Elizabeth; Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie; Mills, Lindeke; DeVoe, RichardCoastal areas are geologically dynamic, undergoing changes that result from an interplay between underlying and surficial geology and various physical factors including tides, waves, and wind. This study focused on gaining a better understanding of the geologic framework underlying the barrier islands, inlets, and shallow offshore marine areas encompassing the Capers Inlet Quadrangle, South Carolina. Detailed mapping of the area was accomplished using high-resolution sidescan sonar, subbottom profiler, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys supplemented with ground-truthed sediment samples. The surveys show the study area to be highly dynamic and variable in terms of both surficial and stratigraphic geology. Sorted bedform features detected through sidescan sonar surveys are similar to those identified in prior nearshore study in South Carolina as well as other areas along the East Coast of the United States. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler data are also used to identify areas that may be useful for renourishment purposes. Additionally, pre-existing knowledge of local geomorphology is used in combination with the high-resolution geophysical data collected to understand the possible influence of paleochannels identified in the offshore and backbarrier stratigraphy on the overall geologic evolution of the area. Maps created using these data incorporate geologic information into a visual format useful to geologists, policymakers, and members the general public seeking to better understand the shifting geology of the area and region.
- ItemInvestigation of the Environmental Changes in the Göksu Valley, Turkey in Antiquity(2014-08-22) Kyer, Jeffrey A.; Levine, Norman S.; Newhard, James M. L.; Doyle, Briget; Anderson, EricThe main goal of this thesis is to shed light on the environmental history of the Upper Goksu Valley in south-central Turkey. A primary focus is a study of changes of the Goksu River valley over time and the effect of those changes upon the local environment and human settlement patterns. Field studies of the region indicate that a large lake existed in the valley during the early settlement periods (Paleolithic and Bronze Age), which would have drastically modified the local climate. Studies of regional geology and geomorphology were combined with remote sensing data obtained from ASTER and LANDSAT. Methods of data collection included clast measurements, geological mapping, geomorphic studies and computer generated digital elevation models (DEMs). A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database integrates this data with archaeological information from the Goksu Archaeological Project (GAP). This will assist in the creation of an overview of the influences on the local ecology and landforms so as to provide a better understanding of the geomorphic influence on local/regional climate change. Hydrological reconstruction of flood velocities indicates that changes in the competence of the Goksu River have occurred over time, indicating a general decline in the river's flow.
- ItemIsolating Key Contributors of Microbial Biofloc to Litopenaeus vannamei Growth: Can Shrimp Consume, Digest, and Receive Supplemental Nutrition From Common Biofloc Microbes?(2014-08-22) Kent, Megan; Leffler, John W.; Browdy, Craig L.; Plante, Craig; Morton, Steve; Seaborn, GloriaZero-exchange, microbial biofloc-based, intensive shrimp culture systems are a new, more environmentally responsible approach to shrimp aquaculture. The diverse biofloc microbe community within these systems recycles nutrients and provides supplemental nutrition to shrimp. In order to better understand how biofloc community composition affects shrimp growth, individual microbe species representative of common taxa within biofloc were tested for their dietary availability and effect on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The microbes tested, which included two diatom species, a eustigmatophyte, and a cyanobacterium, were grown as monocultures and concentrated as feed supplements. Microbe-supplemented custom-made feeds and a control feed were then fed to 30 replicate aquaria of shrimp at 69 shrimp m⁻² for 35 days. Microbial supplements did not enhance or inhibit shrimp growth, feed conversion ratio, or survival when offered as feed supplements. Although below-threshold supplement concentration may have caused this result, treatment effect may have been masked by overall poor shrimp growth in the experimental system. A second experiment tested the ability of L. vannamei to consume each of the four microbe species from suspended monoculture and digest the cells. Each of 160 replicate shrimp were starved for 24 hours and placed in a flask of each monoculture for time increments of either 15, 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Stomach and intestine samples were then taken and assessed for chlorophyll a concentration and number of intact microbe cells using fluorometry and microscopy, respectively. Both assessment methods indicated that shrimp were able to readily consume and digest suspended diatoms, but could not readily consume or digest the eustigmatophyte or cyanobacterium. Behavioral observation of shrimp and scanning electron microscope evaluation of feeding appendages indicated that a filter-feeding behavior may explain differential consumption of microbes. Studies like these may aid in the development of more efficient, economical, and sustainable shrimp aquaculture.
- ItemKing of England's Sickness: A Description of the English Sweat and an Evaluation of the Gendered Nature and Treatment of this Early Modern Illness(2014-08-22) Lentz, Hilary Howard; Boughan, Kurt; Grenier, KatherineBetween 1485 and 1551, there were five outbreaks of a deadly disease, known as the sweating sickness, in England. Characterized by a swift onset of violent symptoms, including profuse malodorous sweating, it almost certainly led to death within forty-eight hours. Although it did affect the lower classes, it appeared to infect mostly elite English men, particularly those in the courts of Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Edward VI. Generally, more men than women had the sweating sickness, and women were more likely to survive it; the treatment also varied for men and women. This paper will examine how people in the early modern period perceived their bodies and particular illnesses, and how they recognized and distinguished the sweating sickness from other illnesses. This thesis will argue that, whatever the sickness may have been, it did affect men and women differently because their lives were so drastically different, partly because their perceptions and conceptions about the male, female, and diseased body were fundamentally different and, most often, flawed, in that they were not anatomically correct, in the modern sense.
- ItemPublic Participation in Local Environmental Governance: A Question of Identity(2014-08-22) Lowery, Robert Cameron; Watson, AnnetteAs a result of neoliberal economics, a significant trend in environmental governance in the United States has been to devolve primary environmental regulatory responsibility to local governments. In turn local governments have become the arena for the formulation and implementation of policy. Critiques of local environmental governance strategies have focused on their structures, functions, successes, and failures. However, what many of these critical discussions miss are issues of identity. Examining the identity politics of environmental groups, actions, and movements can help bring clarity to the underlying factors that influence whether or not groups or individuals support or actively protest environmental regulation. This paper uses a study of a Charleston, SC based citizen's environmental committee to explore common factors in identity among its constituents using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. It then provides an identity-based explanation for their participation in local environmental governance strategies.
- ItemRole of Crab Traps in Oyster Restoration(2014-08-22) Kreutzer, Allison D.; Shervette, Virginia R.; Hadley, Nancy H.; Wilber, Dara H.; Plante, Craig J.Abandoned crab traps are a problem in many coastal areas; when left in the water and marshes they continue fishing, needlessly killing crabs, turtles, and other animals. The goal of this project was to test the utility of these crab traps as a base for artificial oyster reefs. Oyster shell, the media traditionally used for oyster restoration, is expensive to buy and can be ineffective in muddy areas. To start, treatments of crab traps and standard oyster-shell-based restoration techniques were placed at three intertidal locations around Charleston, South Carolina. After nine months, crab traps that had been coated in cement recruited a mean of 2438 oysters/m², the highest recruitment of the crab trap treatments. The oyster-shell-based restoration techniques did, however, recruit more oysters than the cement coated traps with a mean of 9140 oysters/m², and oyster density was affected by a significant interaction between site and treatment (p = 0.006). To evaluate the potential of crab traps for use in soft sediment areas, crab traps filled with recycled oyster shells already laden with live oyster spat were deployed in firm and muddy substrates for nine months. These crab traps showed no significant sediment accretion in even the soft substrate. Furthermore, the oyster spat in crab traps on both the hard and soft substrate attained mean sizes of 25.69mm and 30.89mm respectively, with survival rates of 38.5% and 34.6%. Recycled crab traps show good potential as oyster reef building blocks, particularly if coated with cement, and could allow oyster restoration in many areas which are not amenable to existing restoration techniques using oyster shell alone.