Browsing Electronic Theses by Issue Date "2014-08-20"
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- ItemAnalysis of Larval Dispersal and Retention Within the South Atlantic Bight Using Satellite-Tracked Drifters Released on Reef Fish Spawning Grounds(2014-08-20) Lesher, Ammon T.; Sedberry, George; Jones, Martin; Loefer, Josh; Sancho, GorkaStudies that track the dispersal of eggs and larvae from a point source are an important component in the study of recruitment variability, larval dispersal, and marine protected area (MPA) science. This study evaluated the mechanisms by which planktonic eggs and larvae are transported within the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) through the use of satellitetracked drifters. The study revealed that while the region is dominated by the Gulf Stream Current, there are distinct oceanographic processes that may facilitate the retention of planktonic larvae including inshore countercurrents, gyres, eddy formation, and inshore transport. Dispersal occurs on a broad scale throughout the SAB with the drifter tracks providing evidence of both long-distance transport and local retention. Transport routes from the recently enacted Amendment 14 MPAs were evaluated to determine the potential benefits of larval dispersal from a protected area. Evidence that the region appears to be, at least in part, self-recruiting should facilitate the protection of habitats where spawning fish are prevalent to ensure a stable source of larvae within the region thereby mitigating the long-term effects of overfishing on the overall health of commercially exploited fish populations.
- ItemClustering Datasets with Singular Value Decomposition(2014-08-20) Douglas, Emmeline P.; Langville, Amy; Cox, Ben; Johnston-Thom, Katherine; Jones, MartinSpectral graph partitioning has been widely acknowledged as a useful way to cluster matrices. Since eigen decompositions do not exist for rectangular matrices, it is necessary to find an alternative method for clustering rectangular datasets. The Singular Value Decomposition lends itself to two convenient and effective clustering techniques, one using the signs of singular vectors and the other using gaps in singular vectors. We can measure and compare the quality of our resultant clusters using an entropy measure. When unable to decide which is better, the results can be nicely aggregated.
- ItemDefining a network model for the non-profit disaster sector: The case of National VOAD(2014-08-20) Wieland, Adrian M.; Jos, Philip H.; Stewart, KendraIn recent years, much study has been done with regard to the failings of federal, state and local governments in disaster management and in determining the best methods in resolving those failings with regard to not only the government actors, but also their relationship to community and nongovernmental partners and contracted agents. Little of this discourse considers or explores that similar issues might exist amongst the non-governmental agencies themselves, examining them only as peripheral or contract players in a government-centric network. While there is certainly validity to this point of view, non-governmental actors in disaster response are highly organized, large and complex entities with vast reaches and have proven to be instrumental in addressing preparedness education, mitigation and planning, and disaster response and recovery needs. The strengths and weaknesses of non-profit networks and the sometimes dysfunctional relationships between their various affiliations and partnerships is an equally worthy topic for inquiry and is integral to fully understanding the dynamics of and improving the efficacy of emergency management efforts in the United States. Further, through an understanding of the existing structural framework of National Voluntary Organizations Against Disaster (NVOAD), a descriptive model will emerge that will shed some light on areas for future research and provide a point from which similar non-profit networks can be examined.
- ItemDescriptive and Mechanistic Toxicity of Conazole Fungicides to the Alga, Dunaliella Certiolecta (Chlorophyceae)(2014-08-20) Baird, Thomas David; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Fulton, Michael H.; Pennington, Paul L.; Murren, Courtney J.Conazole fungicides are commonly used to prevent fungal growth on turf grass and agricultural crops. As many of these sites are adjacent to coastal waterways and estuaries, there exists the potential for non-target effects of runoff on marine organisms. This study reports 96 h EC50 values for four conazole fungicides (triadimefon = 5.98 mg/L; triadimenol = 5.51 mg/L; propiconazole = 2.33 mg/L; hexaconazole = 0.91 mg/L) to the alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta. We further investigated possible mechanisms of toxicity by examining sublethal effects of exposure on cell morphology, osmoregulatory function and lipid composition. These mechanistic studies revealed that conazole exposure does not inhibit synthesis of the cells glycerol osmolyte, but does result in an overall increase in cellular volume and total lipid content. Both fungi and chlorophytes rely on ergosterol to maintain membrane structure and fluidity, and we provide evidence that the sterol-inhibiting conazoles may interfere with ergosterol biosynthesis in the cell membrane of Dunaliella. Employing elevated lipid content as a toxicity biomarker to triadimenol, an EC50 of 2.25 mg/L was established, which is less than half the value reported (5.51 mg/L) when using population growth as an endpoint. These findings suggest that green algae may be especially susceptible to non-target effects of sterol-inhibiting fungicides in marine systems, and that suborganismal measures of pollutant effects should be considered when setting regulatory limits.
- ItemDevelopment of invertebrate assemblages on artificial reef cones off South Carolina: Comparison to an adjacent hard-bottom habitat(2014-08-20) Burgess, Dany E.; Wenner, Elizabeth; Hyland, Jeff; King, Rachael; Martore, RobertArtificial reefs are often used to increase the amount of hard-bottom habitat in otherwise sandy areas, including parts of South Carolina's continental shelf. In 1997 and 2003, the SCDNR deployed two designed concrete reefs off the coast of Charleston, SC, for use in fishing experiments. This study was conducted to assess the development of epifaunal invertebrate assemblages on both the younger ("Area 53" 2 years old) and older ("Area 51" 8 years old) reefs. Each artificial reef was also compared to an adjacent natural reef, "Julian's Ledge", in an attempt to determine whether designed structures can form habitats that resemble natural hard bottom areas over time. Macrofaunal invertebrates from each of the three reef sites were collected during Spring/Summer 2005. A total of 24,940 individuals were found, comprising at least 384 motile and sessile species. Cluster analysis revealed that species composition between reef sites was distinct, with Julian's Ledge displaying higher species number and diversity; however, evidence for convergence over time included a large group of species common to all three sites, and a higher level of similarity between Julian's Ledge and Area 51 than between Julian's Ledge and Area 53. Additional sampling at a later time period could help to elucidate whether these trends may be attributed to reef age, or other environmental variables. This study provided the first catalogue of invertebrate data for any of South Carolina's designed experimental artificial reefs.
- ItemEffect of salinity on membrane transport proteins in the kidney of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Dasyatis sabina)(2014-08-20) Dempsey, Adair Marie; Fitzgibbon, Wayne; Janech, Michael; Miller, Donald; Burnett, LouisThe renal reabsorption of urea and electrolytes is the primary mechanism underlying the osmoregulatory strategies of marine elasmobranchs. However, the sites and mechanisms by which these solutes are reabsorbed have yet to be elucidated. Based on the finding that the fractional reabsorption of urea is greater than 90%, we hypothesized that solute reabsorption occurs at multiple sites along the nephron of elasmobranchs. Histological techniques were utilized to map the tubular segments that comprise the nephron of the stingray, Dasyatis sabina. Immunohistochemistry was then utilized to localize facilitated urea transporter isoforms as well as Na+-K+-ATPase within the kidney. Since exposure to low salinity has been shown to induce an increase in absolute reabsorption, the effect of exposure to low salinity on the abundance and localization of these membrane transporters was also determined. Kidneys were obtained from stingrays either maintained at control salinity (850 mOsmol/kg H2O) or subjected to a 50% decrease in salinity over 3 days. Immunohistochemical localization of strUT-1 was limited the second loop in the bundle zone. In contrast, staining for strUT-2 was observed in the Proximal-II and Distal-I segments within the bundle zone and in all segments of the sinus zone except Proximal IV. Na+-K+- ATPase was localized to Neck-II, Proximal-II, Intermediate-x, and Distal-I segments within the bundle zone and to Intermediate-I in the sinus zone. The abundance of the membrane transporters in whole tissue homogenates was not different between rays in control or low salinity. In contrast, the abundance of these transporters in the membrane fraction was significantly higher in rays subjected to low salinity. The findings suggest that in D. sabina, urea reabsorption occurs through facilitated urea transporters at multiple sites along the nephron. The increase in absolute solute reabsorption in low salinity may be due to the shuttling of membrane transport proteins to the plasma membrane.
- ItemEffects of relocation and environmental factors on loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests on Cape Island(2014-08-20) Bimbi, Melissa Kennedy; Bergquist, Derk; Owens, David; Mills, Lindeke; Dawsey, SarahCape Island is the highest-density nesting beach of the northern nesting assemblage of the Northwest Atlantic population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). In order to determine the effect of nest relocation, in situ, hatchery and individually relocated nests were monitored throughout the peak of the 2007 nesting season and the entire 2008 nesting season. MicroDAQTM LogTag temperature data loggers (0.1C error) were placed in the approximate center of nests during the entire incubation duration. Environmental factors such as sand characteristics, vegetation, inundation, and elevation were also examined. Hatchery nests incubated at cooler temperatures than in situ nests and had longer incubation durations. Individually relocated nests incubated at similar temperatures as in situ nests and had similar incubation durations. Inundation was significantly higher in in situ nests, and elevation was significantly lower in inundated nests. Hatch and emergence success were similar between all nest types. This research suggests that nest relocation, when used correctly, remains an important management tool for sea turtle conservation and the need for it may increase with rising sea levels.
- ItemGIS mapping of "two worlds": Comparing expert and non-expert conservation priorities(2014-08-20) Reeves, Reginald; Hurley, Patrick T.; Levine, Norman S.; Halfacre, Angela C.; Gleaton, SladeIncreasing urbanization has been met with a call for setting aside lands for permanent protection. In order to maximize available conservation funds, previous research has argued that priority-setting exercises are critical to achieving this goal. In order to advance priority-setting exercises, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are often used to facilitate conservation assessments. This process enables the identification of the highest priority areas for conservation based on certain ecological and biodiversity criteria. To date, conservation assessments largely have been expert-driven and based on ecological and biological data, while emerging research stresses the need to involve non-experts throughout the process of conservation planning. To some, the use of non-experts in the process creates a hybrid view of resource management and has the likelihood; it is argued, to increase the potential for success of conservation projects. From this perspective, greater conservation success results from identifying areas of correspondence between experts and non-experts. To date, however, there has been little examination of the correspondence between expert and non-expert conservation assessments and what this might mean for conservation planning. Using a case study of Charleston County, South Carolina, this thesis examines the issue of correspondence and non-correspondence between expert and non-expert conservation assessments, focusing on how they may contribute to potential success and conflict. Specifically, this research addresses how the incorporation of a particular group of people can affect conservation planning. The results suggest that non-experts in Charleston County identify areas, whose attributes correspond closely to the conservation priorities identified by experts. While this research does not explicitly evaluate conservation success, these findings support the idea that involvement of non-experts in conservation assessments might lay the groundwork for more successful conservation plans, given that potential areas of conflict can arise in the process. For example, past research indicates a focus on corresponding areas can lead to more successful planning; however, doing so may disregard a certain constituency, which itself can lead to conflict. Therefore, plans that proceed from a position that a focus on corresponding areas and a system of conservation comprises may relieve potential conflicts in conservation planning.
- ItemHabitat associations of demersal fishes on the Charleston Bump and adjacent Blake Plateau(2014-08-20) Wieber, Kimberly Starr; Sedberry, George R.; Sancho, Gorka R.; Kracker, Laura; Wyanski, DavidThe Charleston Bump and Blake Plateau, located on the continental slope off the coast of the southeastern United States, is an area of rugged hard-bottom topography and variable currents. The complexity of habitats along with the strong and unpredictable currents makes collecting, sampling, and surveying by traditional methods very difficult. Therefore, little is known about these complex bottom habitats and associated deep-water fish faunas. Video footage from submersible dives made by the Johnson Sea-Link II in 2001, 2003, and 2004 at depths between 300 ‚Äì 900 m was analyzed to characterize habitats based on bottom morphology and occurrence of deep-water corals, and to describe fish assemblages associated with each habitat. Fishes were identified and densities and diversity calculated based on the area transected. Six habitat types were described. Nezumia sclerorhynchus and Laemonema melanurum were the most abundant fishes in flat hard bottom habitat. Nezumia sclerorhynchus was also most abundant in manganese-phosphorite pavement habitat, followed by Helicolenus dactylopterus. Laemonema melanurum and N. sclerorhynchus were most abundant in mixed habitat. In high relief habitat Beryx decadactylus, H. dactylopterus, and N. sclerorhynchus were most abundant. Polyprion americanus was also frequently observed in high relief habitat. Soft sediment and coral rubble habitats occurred on dives deeper than 740 m and were both dominated by Synaphobranchus spp. Although similarity of fish faunas within habitat types was not great, there was a distinction in fish assemblages between shallower (300-650 m) and deeper (740-910 m) dives. The same distinction in fish assemblages was apparent between hard and soft bottom substrate. Species diversity, H', was twice as great in hard bottom habitats as in soft bottom and coral rubble habitats. In situ observations of noteworthy species and behavior are also provided.
- ItemHealth care providers' use of patient education materials for chronic pancreatitis patients(2014-08-20) Brown, Erica Lynn Blender; McGee, Deborah Socha; Kopfman, Jennifer; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Benigni, VinceBackground: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify communication channels currently used and preferred channels of delivery for patient education delivery by health care providers to chronic pancreatitis patients. Methods: A survey developed specifically for this study was administered to health care providers at a Digestive Disease Center. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Cohens kappa, and Fishers exact. Results: Face-to face-interaction was the most commonly current channel used for delivery. Health care providers preferred to use written materials, video, and referrals to a website to new delivery channels. Finally, nurses preferred other health care providers as channels for the delivery of patient education materials. Conclusions: Patient education is important for the management of chronic pancreatitis. This study concludes health care providers preference in developing new channels in delivering these materials.
- ItemInshore spawning of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in South Carolina(2014-08-20) Lefebvre, Lyndsey Stephanie; Denson, Michael; Roumillat, William; Strand, Allan; Darden, TanyaInshore spawning of cobia was investigated in Port Royal Sound (PRS) and St. Helena Sound (SHS), South Carolina. Cobia caught in PRS, SHS, and offshore were collected from anglers and South Carolina Department of Natural Resources employees between April and June 2007 and 2008. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI) for females was 7.3, higher than that reported in previous studies, and females collected inshore had significantly higher GSI values then those collected offshore (7.8 and 5.6, respectively; p=0.0023). Histological analysis of ovaries demonstrated the majority of specimens were in the late developing stage and none were immature or recovering. Females with histological indications of prior spawns were collected inshore and offshore. The collection of two gravid females caught in PRS and SHS indicate spawning was occurring locally. As secondary evidence of spawning, ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in both estuaries in May and June of 2008. For use in positively identifying and aging eggs collected, two growout studies were conducted using hatchery-reared cobia eggs to provide a temperature based time-series reference collection. A total of 924 eggs and 45 larvae were collected and identified as cobia from plankton stations located 12.1 to 20.6 km from the mouth of PRS and 5.1 to 14.3 km from the mouth of SHS. Visual identification of eggs based on morphology were supported with an analysis of covariance, which demonstrated that the relationship between egg and oil droplet diameters did not differ significantly between hatchery reared and plankton gathered eggs (p=0.35; R2=0.61). Using the estimated ages of eggs collected in the plankton survey, spawning times of wild cobia occurred between 1530 and 2145 hours. Based on these findings, PRS and SHS provide spawning habitat for cobia. Current management strategies for cobia in South Carolina may need revision in light of the new information.
- ItemInvasive plants in private neighborhoods: Does neighborhood governance make a difference?(2014-08-20) Cech, Sarah Jean; Gramling, Joel; Levine, Norman; Hurley, Patrick; Halfacre, AngelaEcologists have studied the mechanisms, communities, distribution, and characteristics of invasive plants in both natural and urban environments. Evidence suggests that urban/suburban land uses are highly disturbed and therefore have higher rates of invasive species. Anthropogenic and ecologic factors were examined as contributors to the spread of invasive species, but very few studies investigate how and if written policy effects invasive species distribution. Nearly all subdivisions built in the last 20 years have neighborhood covenants. This study asks two questions. 1) Does the level of environmental regulation within subdivisions affect the non-native plant richness? 2) What other factors within the boundaries of the subdivision contribute to the non-native plant richness? Nine private communities in South Carolinas Lowcountry were assigned a governance level (strict, moderate, or not strict) with regard to environmental policies. Plant surveys were conducted in the common land of each subdivision. The land covers for each subdivision were digitized in ArcGIS. Multiple regression analysis was then conducted to determine the best model for predicting the presence of non-native plants in subdivisions. Examination of descriptive statistics revealed that subdivisions with minimal environmental governance had higher percentages of non-native species and non-native richness. Multiple regression analysis run at different scales revealed that governance level does affect non-native richness and the percent of non-native species. Land cover was also factored into the regression models. Predictors were divided into social and environmental variables and models were run with these variables separate and together. The strongest models occurred when all of the variables were included as predictors, showing that anthropogenic and ecological factors cannot be considered separately in studies of plant communities. These results also indicate that human policy decisions can influence species composition. Subdivision planners, therefore, should consider writing regulations about invasive species into the neighborhood covenants.
- ItemLife history of morays (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States(2014-08-20) Zokan, Marcus A.; Sedberry, George R.; Harold, Antony S.; Owens, David W.; Wyanski, David M.Morays (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) are a large family of marine eels that are poorly known biologically. Twelve species are known to occur in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), a region of continental shelf and upper slope extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Specimens of nine species were obtained from fishery-dependent and fishery-independent sources during May 2005 through April 2007. The most abundant species, Gymnothorax moringa (n = 491), ranged in length from 556-1267 mm TL and age estimates ranged from 4-23 yr. Spawning females were collected from late May through February, with a peak in spawning between June and October. Spawning periodicity estimates ranged from 24-31 days, with nine to twelve spawning events during the spawning season. The second most abundant species, Muraena retifera (n = 53), ranged in size from 573-961 mm TL, with age estimates ranging between 6-24 yr. Spawning females were collected only in June and July. Basic biological information was collected from an additional 44 specimens of seven species. Spatial and temporal abundance of the four most abundant moray species was also examined using a long-term fishery-independent data series. Gymnothorax moringa, G. vicinus and M. retifera were most abundant on shelf-edge hardbottoms (44-110 m), whereas G. saxicola was most common on mid-shelf hardbottoms (18-43 m). The highest catches of morays were from hardbottom habitats off South Carolina and northeast Florida. Species richness was greatest off northeast Florida and on shelf-edge hardbottoms. The temporal abundance of moray species has changed considerably over a 23 yr period, with G. moringa increasing in abundance whereas M. retifera and G. saxicola have both declined in abundance. Distribution of all SAB moray species using fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, as well as museum collection records is presented including range extensions for Anarchias similis and Enchelycore anatina.
- ItemMacrobenthic communities of southeastern United States Tidal Creeks(2014-08-20) Washburn, Travis William; Sanger, Denise; DiDonato, Guy; Hyland, Jeff; DeLorenzo, MarieMacrobenthic communities in tidal creeks with various levels of watershed development and along a longitudinal gradient (i.e., 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders) were sampled in NC, SC and GA to determine how development affected these communities. Several taxa had higher densities in more heavily developed systems (suburban and urban) while other taxa reached higher densities in more pristine systems (forested and salt marsh), and community measures generally differed as well, suggesting that macrobenthic communities may be used as indicators of development in tidal creeks. Furthermore, a separate study was performed to assess the distributions of dominant macrobenthic organisms within a creek system. The macrobenthic communities of four SC tidal creeks were sampled to examine distribution. Samples were collected in 1st and 2nd/3rd orders of these creeks along perpendicular transects in three locations (marsh, intertidal, and subtidal). Samples were analyzed to determine macrobenthic distributions, particularly the oligochaete Monopylephorus rubroniveus and the polychaete Streblospio benedicti. While M. rubroniveus was primarily found intertidally in the 1st orders, S. benedicti was found throughout the creeks. Communities also appeared similar in the marsh microhabitat throughout the length of the creek while communities in the intertidal and subtidal microhabitats differed between the 1st and 2nd/3rd orders. Thus it is important to take into account longitudinal position when sampling these communities.
- ItemManaging coral reef resilience: A comparison of patch reef communities and coral lesion regeneration in protected and unprotected areas of the Exuma Cays(2014-08-20) Booker, Catherine; Dustan, Philip; Mills, Lindeke; Mueller, Erich; Strand, AllanCommunity structure, environmental conditions, and lesion regeneration in a reef-building coral species was assessed to compare the resilience of patch reefs in two areas of varying human impact in the Exuma Cays of the Bahamas. The Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park (ECLSP) is a well-established no-take marine protected area which is minimally influenced by human activities. Elizabeth Harbour (EH) and the adjacent Moriah Harbour Cay National Park are both threatened by multiple sources of pollution, habitat destruction, and fishing. Indicators of resilience were measured at the community, population, and organismal (individual) level in order to identify potential relationships between environmental factors, reef condition, and lesion regeneration capacity of an important reef-building coral species, Montastraea faveolata. Benthic surveys revealed that in contrast to patch reefs in the ECLSP, the reefs of EH are now algal dominated systems. Reefs in the ECLSP were less impacted by algal growth as macroalgal cover was extremely low at 3 of 4 study sites (<10 %). A highly significant difference was found in algal mat cover between the two areas. Mean lesion regeneration rates were consistently greater in the ECLSP, though a significant difference was found only during the first sampling period. Variation was greater within reefs and within colonies than between reefs and between colonies. Analysis of these results indicates a significant negative correlation between intra-colony variation and regeneration after 5 days. This study provides additional ecological data which confirms the degraded condition of reefs in Elizabeth Harbour and explores lesion regeneration as a potential management tool in detecting reef resilience.
- ItemOrdinary gunboats: The CSS Chicora, the CSS Palmetto State, and the battle off Charleston Harbor, January 31, 1863(2014-08-20) Wexler, Charles James; Drago, Edmund Lee; Gleeson, David; Speelman, JenniferThe Chicora and Palmetto State, two Confederate ironclad gunboats, were built to help defend Charleston Harbor from a Union naval assault. This paper is the first effort to examine the construction of these vessels in Charleston during the spring and summer of 1862. It is based on a multitude of primary sources generated at the state and local level. The arrival of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard in September 1862 as the commander of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida dictated a change in strategy. The general favored the construction of torpedo boats, designed by Army Captain Francis Lee, over additional ironclad gunboats. Lee's design served as part of a naval revolution utilizing torpedoes as a primary weapon. However, Lee's efforts to construct his torpedo boat in late 1862 and early 1863 were undermined by a lack of resources and the Confederate Navy's stubborn insistence on building a third gunboat. The battle off Charleston Harbor, on January 31, 1863, was an important tactical victory for the Confederate Navy. Yet, the battle also demonstrated the limitations of the Chicora and Palmetto State as offensive weapons, and justified Beauregard's initial decision to invest resources into torpedo boats. 91p.
- ItemPopulation structure of gag Mycteroperca microleps (Goode and Bean) in the southeastern United States(2014-08-20) Cushman, Elizabeth Lynn; Sotka, Erik E.; Chapman, Robert W.; Harris, Patrick J.; Sedberry, George R.The gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) is a large, protogynous grouper important in both the recreational and commercial fisheries. The gag fishery in the United States is currently managed as two separate stock units: the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic. A previous study found genetic differentiation between sampling locations for gag from the southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico, but questions remained as to whether this patchy structure was temporally or spatially mediated. Utilizing a mitochondrial marker and 11 microsatellite loci, gag from North Carolina, South Carolina, the eastern coast of Florida, and two sites in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were compared to assess the spatial component of genetic variation. On a temporal scale, genotypes of multiple adult cohorts of known ages were compared with young-of-year juveniles from 2005 and archived samples of gag postlarvae from 1985. There was no spatial genetic differentiation among sampling locations in the Atlantic or between the Atlantic and the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and very little evidence of temporal differentiation among cohorts of varying ages. Lack of differentiation suggests that gag represent a single genetically panmictic population from North Carolina to the Florida panhandle. However, coalescent-based genetic simulations indicated that low F ST values may be the result of either broad dispersal (100's-1000's of individuals per generation) at equilibrium between genetic drift and gene flow, or dispersal rates as low as 25 per generation when populations are not at equilibrium. Thus, genetic data can neither support nor refute current management schemes that independently regulate gag in the Gulf and Atlantic.
- ItemProductionism, Sustainable Agriculture, and the Sustainable Agriculture Movement in North and South Carolina(2014-08-20) Strickler, Paul Ryan; Delfield, Helen; Jos, Philip; Gorden, KeaThis paper examines sustainable agriculture as a multi-faceted response to productionism, or the sole focus on ever-increasing yields that anchors the industrial agriculture system; it also explores the depth and breadth of the sustainable agriculture movement in North and South Carolina. After discussing the short history of industrial agriculture (and its deleterious consequences), the paper explains how the productionist ethic informs the political, social, and cultural discourse on agriculture, as well as the epistemological processes that determine what is good farming or food. The paper then defines a sustainable agriculture ideal; the ideal does not abandon the focus on yield, but incorporates ecological, economic, social justice, and cultural considerations as well. Next, a Programmatic Typology for the sustainable agriculture social movement is presented; as opposed to solely focusing on either policy or market solutions, a successful movement must engage in holistic activism. In the following section, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities for the sustainable agriculture movement in North and South Carolina, presenting ten brief case studies of organizations within the regions movement. The conclusion explores how the organizations profiled can fit within the multifaceted sustainable agriculture ideal, further discusses possibilities and challenges for the sustainable agriculture movement, and offers suggestions for future research.
- ItemReaction norm analysis of native, non-native and agricultural ecotypes of seven Brassica species to elevated soil salinity(2014-08-20) Daily, Nicholas; Murren, Courtney; Pritchard, Seth; Strand, Allan; Rutter, MatthewPhenotypic plasticity is a characteristic of a genotype that enables the production of different phenotypes in response to a range of environmental conditions. In this study I investigated the differences in phenotypic response to elevated soil salinity of seven Brassica species which all have native, non-native and agricultural ecotypes. These Brassica species are a well studied group with know phylogenetic relationships. The objectives of my study were (1) to investigate the differences between the native, nonnative and agricultural ecotypes in physiological and morphological responses to elevated soil salinity, (2) to compare these physiological and morphological responses to salt between ecotypes within a species, as well as between the polyploid species and their diploid parents and (3) determine what, if any, differences in physiological and/or morphological responses to salt allow for the potential for increased fitness. Two experiments were performed to investigate these differences; one utilizing lab developed rapid cycling lines and a second utilizing native, non-native and agricultural ecotypes. I found statistically significant variation for plasticity among species, ecotypes and ploidy level for several physiological and morphological traits. Although ecotypes responded uniquely, no one particular ecotype or species was superior overall. My study provides evidence of the ability of certain ecotypes to respond to changing/novel environmental conditions which potentially contribute to invasion success.
- ItemReality television affecting reality(2014-08-20) Teffeteller, Julie; Kopfman, Jenifer E.; Ferrara, Merissa H; Benigni, Vincent L.This study explores how reality television programming can affect the opinions and perceptions of its viewers. Four different reality television show genres were identified in this study. These genres include dating, makeover, lifestyle change, and competition. 211 participants completed surveys regarding their agreement or disagreement with certain statements relating to these genres and how frequently they watch shows from the four different genres. Results identified existing correlations between the amount of reality television viewed weekly from a particular genre and the viewers opinions about statements relating to that genre. Research from this study indicates support of the notion that reality television affects the perceptions of its viewers.