Browsing Electronic Theses by Issue Date "2014-08-19"
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- ItemAnalysis of population structure and assessment of clonality in Vitex rotundifolia, a non-native dune plant using AFLP markers(2014-08-19) Plan, Albert P.; Strand, Allan; Murren, Courtney; Peters, John; Pritchard, SethAmplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs) were used to investigate the population structure and to assess clonality of Vitex rotundifolia, a non-native plant introduced to the coasts of the Carolinas. Eight sites were sampled ranging from Atlantic Beach, North Carolina southward to Isle of Palms, South Carolina. Within these sites 24 ramets were sampled. Large amounts of genetic differentiation was detected among populations (T = 0.54), however none of the differentiation could be explained by geography. The program STRUCTURE clustered the eight sites into four populations that were genetically distinct. Clonality was identified as a reproductive strategy, but proportional expression varied across sites. The effect of error rate on clonality estimation was also determined. No evidence for a series of founding events was found. These results indicate that multiple independent introductions by humans were important in shaping the genetic diversity in these populations. Other species that have similar introduction histories to novel environments may also be able colonize novel habitats without significant reduction in genetic diversity.
- ItemAnalysis of recovery data of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) and royal terns (Sterna maxima) banded in South Carolina(2014-08-19) Stefan, Stacy J.; Doyle, Briget C.; Sanders, Felicia; Hughes, Melissa; Jodice, PatrickThe nesting populations of Brown Pelicans and Royal Terns in South Carolina have experienced declines over the last 10-12 years, the cause of which is unknown. This study examined recoveries of Brown Pelicans and Royal Terns banded in South Carolina since the 1930s. Band recovery locations were spatially analyzed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to determine areas used by South Carolina-banded Brown Pelicans and Royal Terns during the breeding and overwintering periods. Both species use areas inside and outside the United States during the winter and Royal Terns use areas inside and outside of the United States in the summer and winter. Brown Pelican winter recoveries were clustered in areas north of their breeding sites. Mature and immature recoveries of both species were clustered along the coast of Florida during the winter and breeding season. Although most mature summer recoveries of both species were found in South Carolina, a large proportion of both species mature summer recoveries were found in other states. Immature summer recoveries of both species were found closer to their banding sites with age. This study suggests that management aimed to prevent further declines of Brown Pelicans and Royal Terns in the Southeastern region of the United States should use regionally consistent, coordinated efforts but should ideally be of international scale.
- ItemChance at reform: Mohammad Khatami's presidency, 1997-2005(2014-08-19) Jordan, James Russell, Jr.; Wright, Christopher; Speelman, Jennifer; Gigova, IrinaThe purpose of this thesis is to examine the political reforms that were attempted in Iran by the Mohammad Khatami administration. In order to accomplish this I examine the Iranian Constitution, President Khatami's domestic and foreign policy reforms and the transformation of the Iranian political identity during the Khatami presidency. This study attempts to build on the limited scholarship on this recent period of Iranian history.
- ItemCharleston's forgotten general: Roswell Sabine Ripley(2014-08-19) Zoebelein, Jennifer Madeline; Sinisi, Kyle; Speelman, Jennie; Gleeson, DavidDuring the Civil War, Roswell Sabine Ripley was one of the most significant military leaders in the Charleston theatre of operations and beyond. Rising from the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the South Carolina militia, he ended his military career as a Brigadier-General in the service of the Confederate States Army. Current historiography provides limited, if any, analysis or synthesis of the career of this military leader. The purpose of this research is to provide a biographical summary of Ripley‚Äôs military contributions throughout the war, and in particular his involvement with the defense of Charleston harbor. This research makes use of various primary sources including personal letters and military correspondence from repositories such as the South Carolina Historical Society, the South Caroliniana, and the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. This information coupled with secondary literature allows for a more complete picture of Ripley's personal and military life than does currently exist. The result of this synthesis will illustrate the importance of Ripley's contribution as a military leader in the Civil War and alleviate a missing historiographical component in Civil War history.
- ItemEffects of habitat alteration and human disturbance on nesting bald eagle in South Carolina(2014-08-19) Whitney, Suzanne Elizabeth; Murphy, Thomas; Owens, David; Jones, Martin; Mills, LindekeSince European colonization of North America, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations had been degraded by a variety of anthropogenic factors that reduced their populations to a fraction of historic numbers. Protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the banning of DDT has helped bald eagles make a strong comeback. The bald eagle was delisted under the ESA in June of 2007, but still receives protection under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. These regulations are less stringent than the ESA, specifically in regards to habitat protection. This study documents some of the effects human disturbance and habitat alteration have on bald eagle nesting success in South Carolina. Historical nesting data collected over 31 nesting seasons was compared to levels of development documented in nesting sites. Factors examined included the distance from a nest site to the nearest road or structure and the intensity, proximity, and duration of various human disturbances to the nest. This included disturbance from housing, transportation, construction and recreation. Development near nest sites was not found to have a significant impact on mean chick productivity or the percentage of nests that successfully reproduced. Additionally, no specific type of disturbance or development was found to be a good predictor of nesting success using regression models.
- ItemEffects of the 2005 Folly Beach, South Carolina Beach renourishment project on Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting and hatching success(2014-08-19) Gossett, Jennifer Elizabeth; Katuna, Michael; Jones, Martin; Shirey, Alan; Bennett, Carol; Smith, NancyFolly Beach is a barrier island on the coast of South Carolina that serves as a nesting ground for Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta. Due to high erosion rates, this beach was renourished during the 2005 sea turtle nesting season. It is believed that the renourishment project subjected the female nesting turtles to human activity, noise, and light pollution. There was also the possibility that physical changes in the texture and quality of the sand would impede the turtles from successfully digging nests and hampering egg development. This study focused on identifying differences in the physical properties of the natural and renourishment sand, to test whether or not the renourishment project had any adverse affect on nest site selection, hatching success, occurrence of false crawls, and to observe the change, if any, in turtle population nesting on Folly Beach during the 2005 season. A significant difference was found between the moisture content, mean grain size, and grain size distribution of the natural and renourishment sand. However, no significant differences were observed between the hatching successes of nests relocated on the two different types of sediment surfaces based upon these differences. On Folly Beach, there was no change in nesting crawl to total crawl ratio during the renourishment project as compared to historical data, nor was there a significant difference in nest site selection. Since no consistent proportion of the nests received by Folly Beach and the surrounding barrier islands each year could be identified, it was not possible to determine if the apparent differences in nest numbers for 2005 was statistically significant. Dredge activity did not result in a decreased number of nests. The results indicate that the renourishment project had little or no effect on sea turtle nesting.
- ItemEmerita talpoida and Donax variabilis distribution throughout crescentic formations; Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge(2014-08-19) Pulley, Blaik; Stewart, Dennis; Harris, Scott; Mills, Lindeke; Dolan, RobertPea Island National Wildlife Refuge is a 13-mile stretch of shoreline located on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, 40 miles north of Cape Hatteras and directly south of Oregon Inlet. This Federal Navigation Channel is periodically dredged and sand is placed on the north end of the Pea Island beach. While the sediment nourishes the beach in a particularly sand-starved environment, it also alters the physical and ecological conditions. Most affected are invertebrates living in the swash, the most dominant being the mole crab (Emerita talpoida) and the coquina clam (Donax variabilis). These two species serve as a major food source for shorebirds on the island. It is especially important to protect this food resource on the federal Wildlife Refuge, which operates under a mandate to protect resources for migratory birds. For this research, beach cusps of various sizes were sampled to determine whether there is a correlation between invertebrate populations and the physical characteristics associated with these crescentic features. In small cusps (<50m), where the expected physical parameters for cusps were seen, a relationship between invertebrate abundance and cusp location did exist. For larger cusps, the expected physical parameters were not met, and a significant macrofaunal relationship was not always found. The results support the theory that a beach nourishment design using ‚Äúdisposal nodes‚Äù that incorporate and mimic natural crescentic features would be an ecologically appropriate method of sediment disposal. Such a method would minimize initial mortality, leave maximum populations intact to repopulate affected areas, and would also facilitate a faster population recovery.
- ItemFeminist reading of Zadie Smith's novels through the critical framework of interlocking oppressions(2014-08-19) Ledford, Kathryn Fair; Francis, Consuela A.; Lewis, Simon; Horan, ThomasAfter researching Zadie Smith and her three noted works, White Teeth, Autograph Man, and On Beauty, it appears many of the critics have missed a substantial area of research. They have either looked at Smith as the author or they have only examined her male characters' almost exclusively within White Teeth. When the critics only focus on the male characters, then they miss the women's interesting and powerful journeys of fashioning a healthy self. The women of color's experience with their environment, with other women, and with themselves define the feminist perspective embedded behind Smith's works. This analysis contests that women are, in fact, the most crucial to study; a critical lens of interlocking prejudices allows Smith's female characters to come to the forefront of the literary analysis. Throughout all three of Smith's novels, she is able to give a voice to the women who seem to only be in the shadows; the women are able to become independent of the men who dominate the novels and be heard. Their experiences with interlocking oppressions show how they continue to construct their own social identities within a multicultural environment.
- ItemFunctional genomics of the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis): Microarray development and transcriptome analysis of cadmium exposure(2014-08-19) Ierardi, Jessalyn L.; Chapman, Robert W.; Warr, Gregory J.; Mcfee, Wayne; Romano, TracyA cDNA library has been constructed from a skin biopsy as an initial step in defining the transcriptome of the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and developing functional genomic tools to study right whale health at the molecular physiological level. 2496 randomly selected clones (expressed sequence tags, ESTs) have been sequenced, and genes identified as important in the response to stress and immune challenges have been cloned by targeted RT-PCR from skin cDNA. The analysis of the EST collection (archived at www.marinegenomics.org and GenBank) showed a 34.79% redundancy, yielding 1578 unigenes and 27 potential microsatellite markers. 96 genes were cloned by targeted PCR with 52 of these genes related to stress and immune function. Gene Ontology analysis of the unigene collection indicates that the skin is a rich source of expressed genes with diverse functions, suggesting an important role in multiple physiological processes including those related to immunity and stress response. An 8X15k oligonucleotide microarray was developed consisting of 2334 E. glacialis probes and 2166 Tursiops truncatus probes and used to measure the transcriptome level effects of right whale kidney fibroblast cells exposed to cadmium. Cells were exposed to three concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for three exposure times. Cells exposed to 10-6M CdCl2 for 4 hours and 24 hours showed upregulated genes involved in protection from metal toxicity, oxidative stress, protein renaturation, apoptosis inhibition, and several regulators of cellular processes. Downregulated genes represented a suite of functions including cell proliferation, transcription regulation, actin polymerization, and stress fiber synthesis. The collection of differentially expressed genes in this study support proposed mechanisms of cadmium-induced apoptosis such as mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, reactive oxygen species (ROS) influx, and cell cycle arrest. The results confirm the right whale microarray as a reproducible tool in measuring differentiated gene expression and should be a valuable asset for transcriptome analysis of other baleen whales and potential health assessment protocols.
- ItemGenetic linkage map for watermelon (Citrullus lanatu var. lanatus) useful in identifying DNA markers associated with bacterial fruit blotch resistance(2014-08-19) Carter, Louisa Grant; Amnon, Levi; Wechter, Patrick; Murren, Courtney; Zimmerman, AnastasiaBacterial fruit blotch (BFB) is a cucurbit-specific disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, a seedborne bacterium. BFB has been known to cause losses as high as 80% in some watermelon crops and poses a serious threat to cucurbit crops. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine if BFB-resistance exists in BC2S1 plants derived from a wide cross between a BFB-resistant Plant Introduction 494817 (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides; donor parent) and the watermelon cultivar ‚ÄúCrimson Sweet‚Äù (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus; recurrent parent), 2) examine the segregation of markers in the BC2S1 population and determine if the markers are segregating in a normal (Mendelian) fashion that can be useful for establishing inheritance of BFB-resistance in watermelon, and 3) construct an initial linkage map for watermelon using the BC2S1 population and identify putative genomic regions (loci) that may be associated with BFB-resistance. DNA extraction and isolation, sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, and linkage analysis were utilized to construct the initial linkage maps (using the mapping programs JoinMap(TM) 3.0 and MultiPoint). This study is useful in that few linkage maps exist for watermelon. These maps are based on testcross or BC1 populations derived from a wide cross, none of which are exhaustive or are for an advanced BC2S1 population (C. lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus). Also, it is informative with respect to inheritance and segregation of DNA markers in an advanced backcross population (BC2S1) derived from interspecific crosses between wild and cultivated watermelon.
- ItemGrowing a new school community in a garden(2014-08-19) Swinburne, Bianca; Jaruszewicz, Candace; Bartel, Virginia; Edwards, LindaAs a new school forms, the development of community is essential to creating a positive learning environment that meets both academic and social-emotional needs of students. The purpose of the study was to examine how interactions in a garden could contribute to the development of community. From the literature, seven common elements of community were identified: inclusion, democracy, common purpose, diversity, communication, social interactions, and a connection with the earth. The participants were 13 students in first through third grade and three garden teachers at a newly opened school with a focus on environmental stewardship. Teacher and student initiated interactions were observed and recorded over the first three months of school. The data were analyzed to examine each element and interaction over time. The findings provided evidence of consistently positive interactions in the garden. Highly positive interactions in the garden include interconnection to the earth, and working together for a common purpose. Continuing instruction in the outdoor garden environment was recommended due to the highly positive community interactions observed.
- ItemHabitat effects on behavior in a wide-spread territorial song bird, Melospiza melodia(2014-08-19) Scales, Jennifer; Hughes, Melissa; Hyman, Jeremy; Mills, Lindeke; Hettinger, NedIn territorial systems where quality varies across an area the behavior of individuals is likely to be affected. Territorial aggression is likely linked to territory quality while behaviors like boldness may be linked to novel experiences or disturbance. The goal of this study is twofold: First, to determine whether individual male‚Äôs aggression and boldness responses correlate to territory quality (established by historical, 2000-2007, fledging success and clutch sizes) in a natural setting; Second, assess whether territorial individuals in areas disturbed by humans show a difference in behaviors when compared to their more naturally located counterparts. For both questions song playback was used to assay male territorial aggression and flight-initiation-distance was used to assay male boldness. It was found that male song sparrow aggression correlated with historical clutch size but not historical nest success; neither historical clutch size nor nest success correlated with boldness. Results suggest that either more aggressive males are better able to obtain and defend higher quality territories or that males modulate their aggressive behavior according to territory quality. For the second question, a comparison was conducted between aggression and boldness responses in the natural population and males found in the nearby towns of Linesville and Conneaut Lake, PA. Males on human disturbed territories are significantly more aggressive and bolder than males found in natural settings, suggesting more aggressive and/or bolder males are better able to cope with human related stresses or that human disturbance causes a change in male behaviors. Alternatively, given that aggression is correlated with territory quality it may be that human disturbed territories are of a higher quality than the natural territories.
- ItemImmune response of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica: Effects of cadmium and the localization and bacteriostasis of introduced Vibrio(2014-08-19) Williams, Heidi Rachel; Burnett, Karen; Burnett, Louis E.; Chapman, Robert W.; Stewart, JillThe Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is constantly exposed to microorganisms and pollutants in the surrounding environment. While cadmium (Cd) has been shown to alter specific immune defense mechanisms, the direct effect of Cd on the inactivation and degradation of bacteria in this animal is unknown. Furthermore, the roles of individual tissues in the distribution, inactivation and degradation of live bacteria introduced into the host remain unclear. First, we determined the effect of Cd on the immune responses of C. virginica at the organismal, cellular and molecular level. Following a chronic Cd exposure, oysters were injected in the adductor muscle with 105 live V. campbellii. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to quantify the number of intact bacteria, while selective plating was used to quantify the number of injected bacteria that remained culturable within the tissues and fluids of the whole animal at 10, 30 and 60 min after injection. While Cd did not alter the oyster‚Äôs ability to inactivate bacteria, Cd exposure induced a significant decrease in the numbers of circulating hemocytes and significant changes in the expression of selected genes as determined by microarray analysis. The gills, digestive gland and hemocytes mounted unique responses to chronic Cd exposure, yet the functional integrity of immune defense at the organismal level was maintained under these conditions. Second, we determined the relative contribution of individual tissues to the antibacterial response of C. virginica following injections of V. campbellii. Numbers of intact bacteria were used to identify sites of bacterial accumulation, while percentages of culturable bacteria were quantified to determine sites of bacteriostasis within the digestive gland, mantle, gills, adductor, gonadal tissues, labial palps and hemolymph at 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection. The gonadal tissues contained the greatest concentration of intact bacteria and the lowest percentage of culturable V. campbellii compared to all other tissues. We suggest that the gonadal tissues, when present, are the main site of bacterial accumulation and bacteriostasis. Overall, this study demonstrates the resilience of oysters to bacterial infections by their ability to inactivate bacteria.
- ItemKing James VI of Scotland, his treatise Daemonologie, and the subsequent influence on witchcraft prosecution in Scotland(2014-08-19) Rhodes, Sarah; Coy, Jason; Delay, Cara; Boughan, KurtJames VI of Scotland was influential in the continuation of the prosecution of witchcraft in Scotland. James‚Äô efforts against witchcraft began in the early 1590s with the instigation of the North Berwick Trials of 1590-1592 where he played a pivotal role against the witches who were supposedly trying to kill him. After this trial, James wrote his treatise Daemonologie in 1597 which was a compilation of all that he learned about witchcraft as well as a way to disseminate information on his belief in divine right monarchy and an attack on those who were skeptical about the reality of witchcraft. All of these factors led Daemonologie to become an important work in regards to the trials of witchcraft in Scotland. After his efforts against witchcraft in Scotland, James would ironically return to his skeptical beliefs that were present before 1590.
- ItemMercury contamination along the eastern coast of the United States: Assessment of the Diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin, as an indicator species(2014-08-19) Arthur, Courtney Dawn; Owens, David Wm.; Christopher, Steven; Keller, Jennifer; Roumillat, WilliamMercury (Hg) contamination has become a global issue in the past century. Malaclemys terrapin life history traits including wide distribution, site fidelity, and long lifespan, may suit it for contaminant studies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the diamondback terrapin, M. terrapin, shows local or regional variation as an indicator of Hg in estuaries. Isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determined total mercury (THg) in M. terrapin blood and scute tissues on a local scale in Charleston, SC, and on a regional scale following a gradient of atmospheric Hg deposition in the southeastern United States. Mercury varied by sex and site for blood (F(8,63)=9.09, P<0.0001) and scutes (F(14,57)=10.17, P<0.0001). Atomic absorption spectroscopy determined THg in intertidal sediments from Charleston, which varied by site (F(3,16)=5.89, P=0.0066). Though sediment THg varied by site and validated the choice of local pristine and polluted sites, no correlation existed between sediments and blood (F(1,2)=0.37, P=0.604) or scutes (F(1,2)=0.52, P=0.547). Variation in tissue THg was explained by local and regional mercury contamination, though neither sexes nor tissue matrices always reflected the same trend. A more detailed look at the entire system, and in particular sediment chemistry, is needed to resolve the controls on mercury levels in M. terrapin. Uncertain conservation status makes M. terrapin a prime candidate for further study of estuarine pollution. Future studies should focus on population and health assessments in order to prioritize threats that are likely causing declines in M. terrapin populations.
- ItemMore than a footnote: Native American and African American relations on the southern colonial frontier, 1513-1763(2014-08-19) Fritz, Timothy David; Boucher, Christophe; Poole, W. Scott; Preston, DavidDuring the colonial period of United States history, the area that became the American Southeast was the scene of vast human migrations, epidemic diseases, international conflicts, and multicultural interaction. The relationship formed by Native Americans and Africans played an important role in the social and national development of this region. Current historiography focuses on this relationship in later historical periods, but its origins have received less attention than its significance merits. The purpose of this research is to provide a general history of Native American and African contact on the southern colonial frontier and place the relationship formed within the greater international border struggle between the British colonies and Spanish Florida. This research makes use of various primary sources including personal correspondence, state economic records, and military reports from repositories such as the South Carolina Historical Society, the Georgia Historical Society, the British Records Office, and the Spanish Archives of the Indies. These documents combined with secondary literature allows for a thorough analysis of the cultural exchanges facilitated by the institution of slavery in the colonial south and the problems these relationships caused for British colonial security. The result of this study will illuminate how multiethnic relationships formed through British colonial slavery systems were exploited by the Spanish, caused legal paranoia and retaliation from the South Carolina and Georgia colonies, and changed the racial views of southern Native American tribes.
- ItemPygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps, De Blaineville 1838) strandings along the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States: Analysis of association with environmental factors(2014-08-19) Berini, Carole; Kracker, Laura; Mcfee, Wayne; Ditullio, Giacomo; Dukes, Robert W.Marine mammal strandings have been reported for thousands of years and numerous hypotheses have been formulated in attempts to explain such events. Nonetheless, the causes of marine mammal strandings still are not well understood. The pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) is the second most commonly stranded cetacean on the southeastern coast of the United States, yet its biology is largely unknown. The present study examines stranding records along the Atlantic coast of the southern United States (from Cape Hatteras, NC to Miami, FL) from 1992 to 2006 in association with environmental factors. Strandings were mapped in a Geographical Information System (GIS) in connection with bathymetry and sea surface temperatures (SST) from satellite images. The images were processed to identify frontal zones as well as the position of the Gulf Stream. Monthly Multivariate El-Ni√±o Southern Oscillation Index (MEI), North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and records from NOAA‚Äôs National Data Buoy Center (wind speed and direction, wave height, average wave period, and barometric pressure) were also included in the analyses. The number of strandings per month was related to the environmental data using Generalized Linear Models (GLZ). The best GLZ models identified significant correlations with MEI, SST, wind speed, wave height, average wave period and barometric pressure. Although more work is needed to understand the distribution of pygmy sperm whales at sea and the factors influencing the occurrence of stranding events, this study is a step toward developing a model to predict pygmy sperm whale strandings.
- ItemSeasonal relationships between precipitation and stream flow patterns related to watershed characteristics of two third-order coastal plain watersheds in South Carolina(2014-08-19) La Torre Torres, Ileana Bagnamanay; Amatya, Devendra M; Levine, Norman S.; Colgan, Mitchell W.Hydrological studies in the Southeastern U.S. have primarily focused on runoff generation processes in Piedmont and mountainous areas; much less is known about hydrological processes in Coastal Plain watersheds. These two areas differ considerably in climate, topography and soil composition. Because of population growth in the last few decades in the Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) of South Carolina, it is important to fully understand natural hydrologic processes in LCP in order to predict impacts of land management activities on watershed hydrology. This study describes the relationships between rainfall patterns and stream flow for a third-order watershed, Turkey Creek. Runoff-rainfall ratios for several storm events were used to describe baseline runoff as a function of seasonal storm event and rainfall. It was hypothesized that runoff rainfall ratios are smaller during the summer season and greater in the winter due to generally reduced flows as a result of increased evapotranspiration (ET) from the forests during summer fall, and saturated/sustained flows in winterspring. Alternatively, runoff-rainfall ratios may be directly proportional to the antecedent soil moisture condition (as estimated by 5 day prior rainfall). To complement the objectives of this study the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) and Rational methods were used to predict runoff volumes and peak flow rates for simulated and design storms. Results from this study showed that runoff-rainfall ratios were greater for wet (winter-spring) periods compared to dry (summer-fall) periods. Also, runoff response was related to antecedent soil moisture conditions for wet and dry conditions. Results obtained from SCS-CN and Rational method overestimated runoff volumes and peak flow rates for the Turkey Creek watershed. These results were influenced by the design limitations of the methods, thus, the application of these methods in similar watersheds is not recommended.
- ItemStudent variances and the differentiation of instruction: Teacher's perceptions(2014-08-19) Cataldo, Allison Grace; Edwards, Linda Carol; Bartel, Virginia B.; Dukes, AnneThis study examines perceptions' of forty-seven elementary school teachers regarding student variances and differentiation. Research questions in the mixed-method study were: How do teachers identify the varied needs of their students? What barriers impede teachers from doing so effectively? What do teachers consider the predominant learning styles of students in their classrooms? What do teachers think accounts for the differences in how their students learn? What strategies do teachers most use to differentiate instruction? Questions were asked of all teachers in three different schools in a large urban school district. Findings are presented and results discussed in relation to relevant literature including the learning styles of children and differentiation strategies. Results showed that 29% of teachers identified their students' predominant learning style as kinesthetic and visual. Time was also found to be a barrier to teachers having the time to get to know their students' interests. The implication is also strong that teachers need to be better trained in strategies to differentiate.
- ItemTemptations of Christopher Marlowe: Tamburlaine The Great, Doctor Faustus, and The Jew Of Malta as a Trilogy on Christian Spirituality(2014-08-19) Martin, George Fredric; Allen, David; Seaman, Myra; Livingston, MichaelThis thesis demonstrates that Christopher Marlowe created three protagonists Barabas, Faustus, and Tamburlaineas personifications of three temptations to worldly powerAvarice, Hypocrisy, and Tyrannyas depicted in the gospels of the New Testament. Through detailed analysis of the Bible, the plays, and other sources primary and secondary, it rebukes the notion that Marlowe was an atheist at all. It explains the orthodoxy and heterodoxy of his theology as depicted in the plays, establishing Barabas as vice-figure and personification of avarice, Faustus as a vice figure and personification of hypocrisy, but Tamburlaine as the personification of tyranny, a role compatible with Gods design. By accomplishing this, this thesis posits the origin of the works of Marlowe within the historical fact of his studies in divinity rather than in his supposed psychology and sexuality.