Browsing Bachelor's Essays by Issue Date "2014-12"
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- ItemEffects of Reinforcer Magnitude Variability on Operant Responding and Choice in RatsHavens, Crane Alexander; Chad, Galuska MThe current study determined the effects of either a constant-sized (e.g., 2 pellets) or a variable-sized (averaging 2 pellets but ranging from 0-12 pellets) reinforcer on random-ratio responding in rats. Dependent measures of interest included within-session patterns of responding under a two-component multiple schedule, resistance to extinction, and preference under a concurrent schedule. Under a multiple schedule in which the two components alternated every 5 min, the component associated with the variable-sized reinforcer engendered greater responding later in the session. Responding in this component also was considerably more resistant to extinction than responding maintained by a constant-sized reinforcer; in fact, response rates increased considerably and these elevated rates were maintained for four consecutive extinction sessions in some rats. Despite this, under the concurrent schedule, the constant-reinforcer alternative was preferred in all rats. The results are discussed within the context of habituation, the partial reinforcement effect, and implications to gambling.
- ItemPersonality, Sociability, and Autobiographical Memory: Do Personality Traits or Social Support Relate to Enhanced Memory Specificity?Deasy, Lauren Leigh; Greenberg, DanielAutobiographical memories are memories of personal experiences. Most research on this form of memory has focused on accuracy, consistency, vividness, and emotional consistency, but more recent studies have shown that personality and social factors can affect autobiographical recall. In this study, we examine those personality traits and social factors in more detail using the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, the Autobiographical Memory Interview, Perceived Social Support Scales, Duke Functional Support Scales, Beck Depression Index, and the NEO-FFI with 60 older adults in the Charleston community. Our findings suggest that high familial support is associated with enhanced early childhood autobiographical memory, even when controlling for scores on the Beck Depression Index and extraversion. In addition, high familial support correlates with several qualities of autobiographical memories such as reliving of the memory, the narrative coherence, the positivity of the emotions in the memory, the vividness of the auditory imagery, and the tendency to rehearse memories. Sociability, specifically family support, is related to enhanced quality and specificity of autobiographical memory.