Browsing Bachelor's Essays (Embargoed) by Issue Date "2013-11-05"
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- ItemFinancial Industry Diversification: An Empirical Analysis(2013-11-05) von der Lieth, James P; Neesham, BethThis paper uses a quantitative approach to determine whether or not diversified financial institutions perform better than specialized financial institutions for shareholders. It aims to identify whether or not economies of scope benefits of financial conglomerates outweigh the negative implications of providing a wide variety of services. Other academic work has identified economies of scope benefits in the financial sector, including the ability to market diversified services to existing customers, sharing of fixed costs, and ability to take advantage of the moral hazard of the FDIC. (Laeven and Levine) Possible diseconomies of scope effects include exacerbating agency problems between managers and investors, more precarious risk management and invoking inner-company conflicts of interest due to offering both investment services and banking services. This paper will identify which financial institutions business model has historically provided the best returns to shareholders since the repeal of the Glass-Steagall, when United States financial institutions were permitted to diversify their services to the greatest extent since the 1920’s.
- ItemGlutamate Kinetics in a Middle Aged Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease(2013-11-05) Quattlebaum, Ariana; Korey, Christopher; Boger, Heather$GDNF, a known growth factor, is important for maintaining the health of dopamine (DA) neurons. Parkinson’s (PD) patients have a greatly decreased number of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) while existing nigral neurons have a down regulation of GDNF. Animal models with partial GDNF reduction show an accelerated decline in the SN DA system and motor function similar to PD. Increased glutamate release in the subthalamic nucleus also occurs in PD patients. The purpose of the current study is to help determine the role of glutamate in a GDNF+/- model of PD. Potassium-stimulated glutamate release and uptake in the SN was assessed in anesthetized 12-month-old wild type (WT) and GDNF+/- mice (partial gene knockouts with decreased GDNF levels) by electrochemical detection. After this procedure, western blots helped determine how much glutamate transporter was in each tissue sample, and tissue staining allowed determination of phospho-mTOR levels in the SN (a measure of cellular stress). Initial data indicates high levels of glutamate are released in GDNF+/- tissue, as well as low levels of the transporter GLT-1. Staining results showed an upregulation of phospho-mTOR expression in the SN pars reticulata (SNpr). These results support the idea that glutamate excitotoxicity may play a role in cell death of PD patients, and that cell death leads to additional stress on nearby cells, potentially as an injury response.
- ItemInvestigation of the threshold photodynamic dose for HPPH-sensitized PDT of Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells(2013-11-05) Patel, Pooja M; Jones, LindaOur research group at the College of Charleston has been working in collaboration with physicians at Mayo Clinic to develop a method of drug and light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We are studying Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells with the photosensitizer 2-[1-Hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl Pyrophenophorbide-a (HPPH) and 670-nm light. Our aim is to improve the result of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. The first part of the project involved quantifying the photosensitizer using an optical dosimetry method. A “ratio method” was used in which the ratio of the integrated dye fluroesence was divided by the autofluorescence for various amounts of HPPH in a tissue phantom. While dye extraction is likely to overestimate the amount of dye that is therapeutically available in vivo, the ratio method reports optically active photosensitizer content. The second goal of this project was to determine whether there is a threshold of absorbed light for irreversible destruction of photosensitized Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A preliminary experiment compared red and green light sources at an energy dose of 1 Joules/cm2. For the remainder of this project red light was used as it would not limit the depth of the treatment thus, it can penetrate deeper into the tissue to kill the pancreatic cancer cells. The cells were loaded with 1 mg/kg of HPPH and 670-nm light was applied at the range of 0.025-3.0 J/cm2. Clonal assays were used to determine the cell viability, accounting for cell death by both necrosis and apoptosis. After plotting the light absorption dose against cell viability, the LD-50 light dose (light dose that kills 50% of the cells) for HPPH-mediated PDT was determined. The LD50 light dose for panc-1 cells incubated with 1mg/m2 HPPH was 0.15 J/cm2. The dosimetry calculations gave a result of 3.5 x 1010 per cell, yielding an LD-50 dose in terms of photons of 1.11 x 1019 photons per gram of tissue.
- ItemQueering Femme: An Examination of Contemporary Femme Identity(2013-11-05) Reed, Hannah Clary; O'Dowd, Ornaith; Hladky, Katie$
- ItemThe effects of pesticide and salinity on early life stages of the green tree frog (<i>Hyla cinerea</i>)(2013-11-05) Wilder, Anneke E; Welch, AllisonIncreased salinity in freshwater habitats can result from anthropogenic factors such as climate change and sea level rise, use of road salts, over-irrigation and groundwater depletion. This emerging threat can affect freshwater species in both coastal and inland environments. Pesticides have also been found in freshwater environments around the globe, and can be harmful to many different aquatic organisms. Amphibians are highly sensitive to changes in their surroundings, making them good indicators of environmental quality, especially in freshwater habitats. This study examined the effects of increased salinity and a common insecticide, carbaryl, on early life history stages of the green tree frog (<i>Hyla cinerea</i>). To test effects of salinity on sperm activity, we subjected <i>H. cinerea</i> sperm to levels of salinity ranging from freshwater to moderately brackish and analyzed activity using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Effects of carbaryl on sperm activity were measured in a similar fashion, using concentrations ranging from zero to a dose that is beyond the expected field concentration. We also examined female oviposition site selection in response to salinity and the presence of carbaryl in artificial pools. Mean sperm motility and velocity were both found to decrease as salinity concentration increased, butcarbaryl had no significant effect on sperm activity. Females tended to avoid ovipositing in pools with increased salinity. Although no significant difference was observed in oviposition between pools with and without carbaryl, pools received no oviposition when freshly dosed with carbaryl. These findings suggest that increased salinity may negatively affect reproductive success in <i>H. cinerea</i>, but that females may be able to avoid these effects through depositing eggs in freshwater sites. Selective oviposition may increase the ability of amphibian populations to persist in degraded habitats.
- ItemUsing Stable Water Isotopes and Dissolved Organic Matter to Delineate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Low-Gradient Watersheds(2013-11-05) Nickolas, Lydia Beck; Vulava, Vijay MThe southeastern coast is among the fastest growing communities in the United States. From 2010-2011, Charleston, South Carolina experienced a 2.6% increase in population growth, ranking it as the 8th fastest growing metropolitan area in the US. The resulting urbanization and increased land use has led to significant alteration of coastal watersheds and degradation of associated fresh and estuarine water body health. Compounding this problem are the many effects of global change-related extreme weather patterns - e.g., large floods caused by moderate storms - that could have grave consequences for the ecology and people that live here. The overarching goal of our research project is to understand how land-use change and climate change related precipitation in coastal environments affects coastal watersheds. Understanding the sources and residence time of water in these watersheds is crucial to assessing the future impacts of global change. The main objective of this study was to delineate sources of water to streams in low-gradient coastal watersheds using stable isotopes of water and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Precipitation, surface water, and groundwater samples were collected from two sites and analyzed for δ18O and δ2H using a stable water isotope analyzer. End-member mixing analysis was performed to estimate the source contributions to Turkey Creek, a third order stream (draining WS-80 and UTC), which serves as a model for streams found in low-gradient watersheds of the southeastern coast. DOM in these water samples was analyzed using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (excited at a wavelength of 355 nm) and a total organic carbon analyzer. Isotopic analysis results indicate that δ18O signatures of precipitation (representing the most depleted source) experience some seasonal variability (depending on storm origin and timing), surface water (relatively more enriched source) is typically depleted in 18O during the cooler months, and groundwater δ18O values follow seasonal trends of depletion in the cold months and enrichment in the warm months, though the individual signature is largely related to depth. End-member mixing analysis suggests that 40.8% of the contribution to Turkey Creek originates from groundwater, while 59.2% originates from precipitation. DOM analysis demonstrated variable differences between each site, but the methodology proved somewhat flawed. These results suggest complex dynamics in these watersheds and serve to reinforce the previous conceptual model, which indicates a predominance of precipitation input to stream flow.