Browsing Bachelor's Essays (Embargoed) by Issue Date "2013-11-04"
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- ItemA Test of the Effects of Covert Marketing: Should Marketers Proceed With Caution?(2013-11-04) Gordon, Sarah B.; Blose, Julia E.
- ItemChoice among Equally Priced Food Alternatives in Rats(2013-11-04) Gonto (Burnette), Kelsey Leigh; Galuska, ChadStudies investigating unit price predictions of choice in humans and monkeys have indicated that – at relatively cheap prices – most subjects prefer a large reward for more work than a small reward for less work; however, the opposite pattern has been reported in pigeons. Our study further explored this issue by examining rats’ demand and choice between alternatives equal in price but comprised of different response requirements and reinforcer magnitudes. Five food-restricted adult male Long Evans rats lever pressed for food pellets. Demand curves were first obtained by manipulating the fixed-ratio (FR) response requirement across sessions using 1-pellet and 4-pellet reinforcers. In the choice phase of the study, two levers were available simultaneously. In most conditions, the alternatives were equally priced but comprised of FR and reinforcer sizes of differing magnitudes. Two patterns of results were exhibited: rats either displayed a clear preference for one of the alternatives or they showed a lever bias. The rats with lever biases demonstrated a clear preference for the cheaper alternative during conditions in which the alternatives were unequally priced. Rats demonstrating preference under equally priced choice comparisons tended to prefer the larger magnitude alternative over the smaller one until the overall price became expensive. These results provide mixed support for unit-price predictions of choice, which state that, when two alternatives of equal unit price are available, there should be no discernable preference between them. This study demonstrates that some rats do, in fact, exhibit a preference between equally priced alternatives comprised of different response requirements and reinforcer amounts.
- ItemEvaluating Cortical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Adjunct to Motor Skills Rehabilitation Training in a Rodent Model of Traumatic Brain Injury(2013-11-04) McCarthy, Jordan J.; Milliken, GarrettVarious studies in animal models of stroke have found that motor impairments caused by stroke can be greatly reduced if the injured area of the motor cortex is electrically stimulated while the animal performs motor skills rehabilitation tasks. This rehabilitation and stimulation combination therapy is very effective, as animals receiving combination therapy are significantly less impaired than animals receiving only rehabilitation after stroke. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of combining cortical stimulation to the affected motor cortex with motor skills rehabilitation training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to determine if cortical stimulation holds the same benefits for TBI as it does for stroke in reducing motor impairments after injury. In this study, rats were initially trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a skilled single-pellet reaching task. Rats then received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) to the area of the motor cortex corresponding to their preferred reaching limb, and electrodes were implanted over the perilesional tissues near the injury site. Nine days after surgery, rats began a seven-week rehabilitation training program in one of four conditions: 100 Hz anodal stimulation during training, 100 Hz cathodal stimulation during training, 100 Hz bipolar stimulation during training, or no stimulation during training. The behavioral effects of rehabilitation and stimulation were assessed throughout the study with weekly single-pellet reaching test probes that evaluated qualitative aspects of 12 distinct motor movements in the reaching task. Overall, no significant differences in reaching performance were found between any of the four groups. These results suggest that 100 Hz anodal, cathodal, and bipolar stimulation are not effective adjuncts to motor skills rehabilitation training in the rodent CCI model of TBI. However, future studies should test different combinations of frequency, intensity, and polarity parameters, because it is possible that a different combination of stimulation parameters could be an effective therapeutic adjunct to motor skills rehabilitation training after TBI.
- ItemThe Effect of Forgiveness on Anger in Autobiographical Narratives: The Moderating Role of Age(2013-11-04) Lee, Maria Eleanor; Robertson, Sarah M