Toxicity Comparison of the Shoreline Cleaners Accell Clean SWA and PES-51 in Two Lifestages of the Grass Shrimp, <i>Palaemonetes pugio</i>
Baxter, Sarah-Marie Elizabeth
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Each year, oil spills contribute to a significant amount of crude and refined oil coastal pollution. Shoreline cleaners are used to remove oil from solid surfaces such as rocky shorelines and beaches. Two life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, <i>Palaemonetes pugio</i>, were tested with two shoreline cleaners, Accell Clean SWA and PES-51, alone and in combination with crude oil using Chemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fractions (CEWAFs). The toxicities of the treatments to both life stages were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassays. When tested alone, toxicity of the two shoreline cleaners was similar. When tested in mixture with oil as CEWAFs; however, Accell Clean SWA resulted in significantly greater hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column and significantly greater toxicity than PES-51. Larval grass shrimp were significantly more sensitive to the Accell Clean SWA CEWAF than adult shrimp. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher for adult shrimp at 111 ppm Accell Clean SWA, but no significant effects were observed for PES-51 or either CEWAF. Glutathione activity was significantly higher for adult shrimp exposed to Accell Clean SWA as well as the Accell Clean SWA and PES-51 CEWAFs. Ecdysteroid hormone levels in larval shrimp increased with Accell Clean SWA and Accell Clean SWA-CEWAF exposure. Larval shrimp took significantly longer to develop and had a greater number of molts to postlarval status than the control at the highest concentration of both CEWAFs. This study is the first to evaluate the toxicity of Accell Clean SWA and PES-51 in grass shrimp and proves the need to investigate not only the toxicity of shoreline cleaners alone but also the toxicity of the cleaners mixed with oil. The results of this study will support future oil spill response decisions.